acute and chronic glomerulonephritis pdf

Acute And Chronic Glomerulonephritis Pdf

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A more recent article on acute kidney injury is available. Abstract Definition Etiology Clinical Presentation Diagnosis Management Prognosis Prevention References Article Sections Abstract Definition Etiology Clinical Presentation Diagnosis Management Prognosis Prevention References Acute kidney injury is characterized by abrupt deterioration in kidney function, manifested by an increase in serum creatinine level with or without reduced urine output. The spectrum of injury ranges from mild to advanced, sometimes requiring renal replacement therapy. The diagnostic evaluation can be used to classify acute kidney injury as prerenal, intrinsic renal, or postrenal. The initial workup includes a patient history to identify the use of nephrotoxic medications or systemic illnesses that might cause poor renal perfusion or directly impair renal function.

What is glomerulonephritis?

Glomerulonephritis is a group of diseases that injure the part of the kidney that filters blood called glomeruli. Other terms you may hear used are nephritis and nephrotic syndrome. When the kidney is injured, it cannot get rid of wastes and extra fluid in the body. If the illness continues, the kidneys may stop working completely, resulting in kidney failure. There are two types of glomerulonephritis—acute and chronic. The acute form develops suddenly. You may get it after an infection in your throat or on your skin.

Blood enters your kidneys through your renal arteries. Your kidneys remove excess fluid and waste material from your blood through units called nephrons. Each nephron contains a filter glomerulus that has a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. The glomeruli filter waste products and substances your body needs — such as sodium, phosphorus and potassium — which then pass through tiny tubules. The substances your body needs are reabsorbed into your bloodstream. The waste products flow through the ureters — the tubes that lead to the bladder.

Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Acute Kidney Injury article more useful, or one of our other health articles. NICE has issued rapid update guidelines in relation to many of these. This guidance is changing frequently. The patient may be known to have CKD or may be presenting for the first time, having been previously not known to have CKD. Management is directed towards identification and treatment of the underlying cause of the acute deterioration of renal function, and treatment for AKI. The patient may present with the cause of the exacerbation eg, local infection , features of chronic failure or may present with AKI.

Acute on Chronic Kidney Disease

Glomerulonephritis refers to a range of inflammatory kidney conditions of the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, known as glomeruli. It can be acute, which means it starts suddenly, or chronic, during which the onset is gradual. Either type can be fatal. Kidney disease affects 4. The glomeruli act as tiny filters within the kidneys. Each kidney contains millions of glomeruli. If the glomeruli become damaged, the kidney can no longer remove waste and excess fluids efficiently.

Glomerulonephritis is a disorder of glomeruli clusters of microscopic blood vessels in the kidneys with small pores through which blood is filtered. It is characterized by body tissue swelling edema , high blood pressure, and the presence of red blood cells in the urine. Glomerulonephritis can be caused by various disorders, such as infections, an inherited genetic disorder, or autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis is based on tests of blood and urine and sometimes imaging tests, a biopsy of the kidneys, or both. People often need to restrict salt and protein intake and take diuretics or antibiotics until kidney function improves. See also Overview of Kidney Filtering Disorders.

Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled. Published 14 May Volume Pages 49— Review by Single anonymous peer review. Therefore, cytokines may act in a systemic, paracrine, or an autocrine fashion. Different patterns of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression and activation characterize acute kidney injury AKI , glomerulonephritis GMN , and end-stage kidney disease ESKD.

Acute Kidney Injury: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management

The Journal publishes articles on basic or clinical research relating to nephrology, arterial hypertension, dialysis and kidney transplants. It is governed by the peer review system and all original papers are subject to internal assessment and external reviews. The journal accepts submissions of articles in English and in Spanish languages.

Glomerulonephritis is the name given to a range of conditions that can affect the kidney, specifically the glomeruli of the kidney. The glomeruli become damaged, commonly because of a problem with the body's immune system. Many people with glomerulonephritis may not notice any symptoms initially.

Arch Intern Med. Efficient and timely diagnosis is essential in these situations because progression to end-stage renal disease may result if the underlying disease is not promptly treated. Glomerular injury leads to impairment of the selective filtering properties of the kidney and reduction in the glomerular filtration rate GFR.

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