Properties Of Liquids And Intermolecular Forces Pdf
File Name: properties of liquids and intermolecular forces .zip
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a nearly constant volume independent of pressure.
This quiz involves the forces of attraction between particles, and the connection to macroscopic physical properties, like physical state and solubility.
Properties like melting and boiling points are a measure of how strong the attractive forces are between individual atoms or molecules. It all flows from this general principle: as bonds become more polarized, the charges on the atoms become greater, which leads to greater intermolecular attractions, which leads to higher boiling points. Now available — Download this awesome free 3-page handout on how to solve common boiling point problems. With 10 examples of solved problems! Hydrogen bonding occurs in molecules containing the highly electronegative elements F, O, or N directly bound to hydrogen.
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The state of a substance depends on the balance between the kinetic energy of the individual particles molecules or atoms and the intermolecular forces. The kinetic energy keeps the molecules apart and moving around, and is a function of the temperature of the substance and the intermolecular forces try to draw the particles together. Molecules in liquids are held to other molecules by intermolecular interactions, which are weaker than the intramolecular interactions that hold molecules and polyatomic ions together. The three major types of intermolecular interactions are dipole—dipole interactions, London dispersion forces these two are often referred to collectively as van der Waals forces , and hydrogen bonds. Surface tension, capillary action, and viscosity are unique properties of liquids that depend on the nature of intermolecular interactions. Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid. Surfactants are molecules that reduce the surface tension of polar liquids like water.
We consider a fluid of spherical particles with a pair potential given by a hard core repulsion and a tail, and show that the isothermal compressibility of liquid water is determined by the degree of steepness of the soft repulsion near the hard-core contact. This helps us understand the thermodynamic mechanism that causes the compressibility anomaly of liquid water. It is well-known that the properties of liquid water at low temperatures change in much different ways than those exhibited by most other liquids under similar conditions [ 1 ]. These properties are determined by the interactions between water molecules, which can be derived by using thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Therefore, it is important to study the relationship between the shape of the intermolecular interaction and each anomalous property of liquid water.
Much of the material in this section should be familiar to you from your pre-requisite general chemistry course. Nonetheless, this section is important, as it covers some of the fundamental factors that influence many physical and chemical properties. The properties of liquids are intermediate between those of gases and solids, but are more similar to solids. In contrast to intra molecular forces, such as the covalent bonds that hold atoms together in molecules and polyatomic ions, inter molecular forces hold molecules together in a liquid or solid. Intermolecular forces are generally much weaker than covalent bonds.
If one molecule is much larger than another, dispersion forces will likely determine its physical properties. Page Intermolecular. Forces. How Do We Explain.
Properties of Liquids
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Mese, Ali I. All clay minerals exhibit some swelling and the basic swelling process is the same for each mineral. However, the degree of swelling varies greatly from one clay to another.
Water gushes out of the faucet. Honey oozes out of a squeeze bottle. Gasoline flows out of the pump.
Bonding, Structure, and Resonance
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ГЛАВА 103 Стратмор возник из аварийного люка подобно Лазарю, воскресшему из мертвых.