Key To Pitmans Shorthand Writing Exercises And Examination Tests Pdf
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These were the fruit of long and widely extended stenographic experiments, and of the valuable criticism and experience of phonographers generally. A number of improvements have been for the first time introduced in the rules of the system, anjd in the method of presenting it to the student, which will u greatly assist the learner in the acquirement of the art.
No effort has been spared to explain and illustrate the rules in the clearest and simplest manner possible, and in the revision of this work especial care has been taken to introduce no word in either the reading or writing exercises, which would afterwards require an alteration of form, a feature that will be appreciated by teachersof shorthand who are familiar with the reverse conditions viii Preface.
Although students, as a rule, experience no difficulty in understanding the method here set forth, it is desirable that they should have, at the commencement, an intelligent grasp of all that is conveyed by that term.
Therefore, before the mastery of the first chapter is attempted, it is important that the Introduction should be thoroughly understood. The advantage of practical ability in the art of shorthand writing is so universally acknowledged in the present day, that it is unnecessary to enforce it.
It is obvious, however, that the value of shorthand, either as a vehicle for private communications or for use in various ways in business or professional life, would be largely diminished if the same system and that the best were not generally employed. This important fact has at last been thoroughly recognized, and statistics, the testimony of public men, and general observation, concur in demonstrating that the Isaac Pitman system is the shorthand par excellence for all who speak the English language.
The United States Commissioner of Education says: "It will be seen, in the chapter giving the statistics of instruction in shorthand in the United States, that the system mainly followed is that of Isaac Pitman. Few inventors within the last two hundred years have been so happy as he in discovering devices that have proved useful in practice, and at the same time called forth universal admiration for their theoretic perfection.
As a consequence, many of the symbols of that alphabet are of necessity used with several significations. If, therefore, a system of shorthand were founded on the common alphabet, it is manifest that it would prove a very imperfect and cumbrous instrument for recording spoken utterances with certainty and speed the chief objects of shorthand. With this alphabet either a single sign standing for one of the letters would be required to do duty for several sounds, or more than one character would need to be used to represent a single sound, as is done in ordinary spelling.
Both methods are open to serious objections. Two simple illustrations will demonstrate the difference between the ordinary spelling and the phonetic method, which is the distinctive feature of Pitman's Shorthand. Our first illustration deals with consonants, and is concerned with the ordinary spelling of the words gaol and gale. If the common spelling were followed in shorthand, we should have symbols for both words containing the characters g-a-l.
But Phonography. Our second illustration deals with Towels, and we take as examples the ordinary spelling of the two words tub and tube. If the shorthand symbols were the equivalents of the letters of the common alphabet, the stenographer would be obliged to write both words by two precisely similar sets of characters, namely, t-u-b. Phonography, however, provides for the representation of the different sounds u and u heard in the respective words, and these are indicated by different symbols, thus: L tub, and L tube.
It may be pointed out that, in two of the words used above as illustrations, there is a final silent e, but silent letters, whether vowels or consonants, are, of course, unrepresented in shorthand. The phonetic notation of the system of shorthand developed in the present work has been found, after widely extended use, to possess important practical advantages. By the employment of what has been termed the " alphabet of nature, " spoken language can be recorded with one-sixth of the trouble and time longhand requires, by those who use Isaac Pitman's Shorthand simply as a substitute for the ordinary longhand writing.
With the adoption of the systematized" methods of abbreviation developed in the briefest or Reporting style of writing Phonography, this method of shorthand can be written with the speed of the most rapid distinct articulation, while it may be read with the certainty and ease of ordinary longhand writing. Badly written shorthand is, of course, neither more nor less legible than badly written longhand.
An explanation on one point is, however, desirable. In etudying and using Phonography, it should be distinctly borne in mind that the art is not designed to represent or Introduction.
The Pitmanic alphabet, in the words of Max Miiller, "comprehends the thirty-six broad, typical sounds of the English language, and assigns to each a definite sign. Experience shows that the pronunciation of the vowels varies greatly in different localities and in the various countries of the world in.
The standard of pronunciation, as exhibited in printed shorthand, cannot, therefore, be expected to minutely coincide with the pronunciation of English in all parts. For this reason the observations of Max Miiller deserve the careful notice of students and teachers. He xii Introduction.
To successfully use Phonography, however, the rules of the system must be mastered, and applied. By the employment of the various abbreviating devices according to rule, the most important benefit to be derived from shorthand will be attained, namely, the maximum of brevity with legibility.
In the present work these rules are fully set forth. The system of shorthand set forth in the following pages was given the name of Phonography a term derived from two Greek words meaning "sound writing" because it affords the means of accurately recording the sounds of spoken language.
From the outset, therefore, the student should remember that he is learning to write by SOUND ; that each character represents one definite sound and no other ; and that the ordinary spelling with its many irregularities and inconsistencies as exhibited in printing and in longhand writing, is not to be followed, or imitated. When he has mastered the signification of the phonographic signs, the student should use those which represent the equivalent sounds in forming the characters for the words he desires to write.
To spell in this fashion a mental analysis of the sounds of 2 Directions to the Student. For working the exercises and for ordinary phonographic writing, a pen and ruled paper should be used. Speaking generally, it is not so easy to acquire a neat style of writing by the use of a pencil instead of a pen. In reporting, no doubt, the pencil is frequently employed; in some cases, indeed, it is impossible to use a pen for notetaking.
The student would do well, therefore, to accustom himself to write with either a pen or a pencil in the more advanced stages of his progress, though for writing the exercises in this book the pen only is recommended.
He should also hold the pen lightly. The wrist must not be allowed to rest upon the note-book or desk. In order to secure the greatest freedom of movement, the middle of the fore-arm should rest on the edge of the desk. The writer should sit in front of his work, and should have the paper or note-book parallel with the edge of the desk or table.
For shorthand writing the nib employed should not be too stiff, but, as the thick and thin characters of Phonography need to be made quite distinctive, it must have a sufficiently fine point for this purpose.
Paper with a smooth surface is absolutely essential. Particulars of stationery, etc. At the outset the student should not attempt rapid writing. It is of the utmost importance that he should train his hand to write all the signs employed in the system with accuracy and neatness, before he endeavors to write with speed.
If he accustoms himself to do this in the earlier portion of his shorthand studies, he will never have 6-y Directions to the Student. The course of procedure recommended to the student of Phonography is that he should thoroughly master the explanations and rules which precede the respective exercises, and write out the illustrative words, afterwards working the exercises.
As the secret of success in shorthand is PRACTICE, it is advisable that the various exercises should be written and re-written until they can be done with perfect accuracy.
The perusal of progressive reading lessons in printed shorthand will also be found helpful to the student in forming a correct style of writing. The system is fully explained in the following pages, and can be acquired from the instruction books alone by any one who is prepared to devote ordinary perseverance and application to the study.
With the assistance of a teacher, however, more rapid and satisfactory advance will be made iu the mastery of the art. Should any difficulty be experienced in finding one, the publishers will be pleased to furnish any student with the names and addresses of the nearest teachers of Pitman's Shorthand, on his forwarding a stamped and addressed envelope for a reply.
It should be pointed out that adequate progress in the acquirement of the art of shorthand will only be made if a certain portion of time is regularly devoted to the study EVERY DAY ; or, in the case of school or class instruction, by a thorough and punctual performance of the allotted portions of work forming the course. Study at irregular intervals of time is of little value, but an hour, or a longer period, devoted daily to the task will, in a comparatively short time, allow of a complete knowledge of the system being gained, while assiduous practice will bring speed.
For the representation of all the consonant sounds except w, y, and aspirate A , the simplest geometrical forms are used, namely, straight lines or curves, as shown in the following diagrams : 9.
The order of the arrangement of each group of consonants, as exhibited in the table on the opposite page, follows the order of the oral movements from the lips backwards in the utterance of their respective sounds.
The first two consonants, p, J, are pronounced between the lips, and the remaining six at the several barriers further back in the mouth, in the succession indicated in the phonographic alphabet.
The first group of eight consonants, represented by straight strokes, is called "explodents," because, in pronouncing them, the outgoing breath is forced in a sudden gust through barriers previously closed. The next group of eight, represented by upright or sloping curves, is called "continuants," because in these the outgoing breath, instead of being expelled suddenly, is allowed to escape in a continuous stream through similar barriers partially open. The "nasals," represented by horizontal curves, are produced by closing the successive barriers in the mouth against the outgoing air-stream, so that it has to escape through the nose.
The "liquids," represented by arched curves, flow into union with other consonants, and thus make double consonants or consonantal diphthongs.
The " coalescents " precede vowels and coalesce with them. The " aspirate " is a breathing upon the following vowel. The articulations in these pairs are the same, but the sound is light in the first, and heavy in the second consonant of each pair. We have, therefore, a light sign for the light sound, and a heavy sign for the heavy sound. In this, as in the fact that each group of consonants is represented by kindred signs, a natural relation is preserved between the sound heard and the sign written.
Throughout this book whatever relates to the light consonants relates also to the corresponding heavy ones unless otherwise stated. The consonants should be written about one-sixth of an inch long, as in these pages. If made heavy throughout they look clumsy : they should be thick in the middle only, and taper off at each end, except when a joining such as V v g is made. Thick strokes are never written upward.
Copy the shorthand letters and write the longhand letter after They are sounded in the larynx or voice-box by the play of the vocal cords on the outgoing stream of air, with simultaneous adaptation of the position of the tongue and lips. The order of the vowels in each group corresponds with the order of their utterance by the vocal organs, each series commencing with the most open and ending with the most closed sound.
The first three vowels, represented in Phonography by a heavy dot. The vowel signs must be written at a little distance from the consonant. If allowed to touch except in a few cases which will be mentioned hereafter , they would give rise to mistakes. In writing Plionography the student should strike the consonant first, and then fill in the vowel in its properplace.
Exercise 4. Write the longhand word after the shorthand, as in line 1. Write the shorthand word after the longhand. Eat J pea, thee, we ; Zoo, moo, boo, rue r up.
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