Difference Between Individual And Social Aims Of Education Pdf
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- The wellbeing effect of education
- Social Aims Of Education Pdf
- Notes on the individual and social aims of Education
- What are the social and individual aims of Education?
The wellbeing effect of education
Cunningham and Briana L. Before focusing on the educational aspects, including references to particular proponents of each, we offer some general back- ground and the philosophical roots to the position. Given the long history of this dispute, it is impossible to offer very detailed accounts and argue for all the specific interpretations of the authors alluded to.
However, where possible, we have provided direct quotes from the authors or references to secondary accounts so the reader will be able at her leisure to pursue the topic in greater depth. Although we believe that a natural account is not possible, we have attempted, however, to offer a fair account of each view. Following this, we offer a bird's eye view of the major criticisms and problems identified with each stance. The chapter ends with a suggestion regarding the possibility of an alternative position that goes beyond either of these views while acknowledging the realities of both the individual and the community.
Rooted in P. The concept has several descriptions, but for the: study of educational aims, building on Watt , the following six points will suffice: 1 Individuals are ends in themselves and have ultimate, intrinsic value. As Triandis summarizes, individualism is a construct characterized by the indi- vidual defining himself or herself as independent, while subjugating most aims to personal goals Although a broad and varied concept, individualism, at its core, privileges individual human beings, while analyses of actions surround- ing and benefits to wider society are considered secondary.
Instances of placing the individual at the core of analyses and action can be rooted in early Greek philosophy and in some Christian scriptures. Certain thinkers from this 'age of reason' stand out as prominent individualists.
For instance, Adam Smith's eco- nomic theory posits that society functions at its best when all parties act to serve their own individual interests. Through a conception of human nature where human beings are motivated most by self-interest, competitiveness and ambition, Smith argues that government control over economic activity must be limited, and that the 'invisible hand' of the market will create stability and prosperity.
Therefore, although proposing that self-interest does indeed serve wider society, it is the individual that is at the centre of Smith's philosophy Triandis, ; Smith, ; Watt, Kant's theory of morality also proposes the primacy of the individual. His categorical imperative, which posits that our moral actions as individuals must be universalizable, implies that humans are autonomous beings and that moral action is a result of each individual's rational behaviour.
Rousseau is critical of any restraint on human freedom, and believes in a 'social contract', into which a human being enters freely and individually agrees to follow, as opposed to coer- cion under the law. Rousseau's educational philosophy, which will be discussed later in this chapter, exemplifies his political theory.
John Stuart Mill's nineteenth century liberal political theory emphasizes indi- vidual liberty. His philosophy can be cited as a major force behind individualism, and notably he was an early defender of freedom of speech and open discourse, regardless of the views expressed.
He argues that power over others, by govern- ment or otherwise, should only be exercised if it is to keep others from being harmed. Beyond this [i]n the part which merely concerns himself, his indepen- dence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the indi- vidual is sovereign' Mill, , p. And Mill's dictum became a motto for the liberal tradition. The twentieth century saw several theorists influenced by individualism and, in particular, the form of individualism found in Smith's economic philosophy.
According to Giroux , [ajs a public pedagogy and political ideology, the neoliberalism of Fried rich Hayek and Milton Friedman is far more ruthless than the classic liberal economic theory developed by Adam Smith and David Riccardo in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Neoliberalism has become the current conservative revolution because it barkens back to a period to American history that supported the sovereignty of the market over the sovereignty of the democratic state and the common good. Whereas usually the liberal philosophical position on individualism is seen as a logical extension of the 'Enlightenment project', one also needs to note the influence of romanticism as for example exhibited in Rousseau.
The romantic element was influential in the development of individualism in education in the twentieth century. And, as will be argued later, many of the major critiques of individual aims in education can also be viewed as criticisms of both liberal philosophy's and romanticism's influence on educational theory. Individualism and aims in education The concept of individualism has been taken up in various ways by several phi- losophers of education.
This chapter will briefly outiine some crucial arguments made in support of an individualist focus in education, demonstrating how the 25 P. S, Wilson and R. The major common characteristic among these philosophers is that they all theorized about education under the framework of individualism, and view individual aims in education as paramount to other educational objectives. Rousseau's treatise Emile, or, On Education, presents a fictional account of the ideal education of a young child - Emile - into adulthood, one that would enable the child to live as a moral adult in his corrupt contemporary society.
Rousseau begins by outlining the early education of the boy, including physical development and emotional growth. Written from the perspective of the child's tutor, Emile exemplifies Rousseau's belief that society acts to corrupt human beings, who are, by nature, essentially good. He then proposes a moral education that focuses on an individual student, educated alone, so that his education can be based on his individual aptitudes, preferences and experiences.
Neill, best known for establishing the 'Summerhill School', critiques most schools for suppressing individual nature and thereby the happiness of the child. As an alternative, Summerhill allows children the freedom of optional atten- dance to classes and to participate democratically in detenrrining rules of the school. Teachers are meant to simply facilitate learning, for according to Neill: a child is innately wise and realistic.
If left to himself [sic] without adult sug- gestion of any kind, he will develop as far as he is capable of developing' Neill, , p. Neill's philosophy stresses the individual nature of the student and his or her freedom to choose how and when to learn. The influence of romanticism in Neill is obvious and perhaps the strongest of those who promoted individualism in education in the twentieth century. The concern with individualism is also reflected in the work of Ivan Illich, best known for his educational philosophy of 'deschooling'.
Illich argues that school- ing as an institution either directly or indirectly teaches or a 'hidden curriculum' where; Students team that education is valuable when it is acquired in the school through a graded process of consumption; that the degree of success the individual will enjoy in society depends on the amount of learning he consumes; and that learning about the world i5 more valuable than learning from the world.
Illich, , p. Illich advocates the establishment of an entirely new form of education, where students are free from coercion - an education that is based on 'conviviality' Illich, He argues that schools are 'serving the purpose of someone other than the learner' Holt, , p.
He also supports deschooling, where he rejects educational resources, for they 'limit access to what is already known' p. Holt argues that students ought to be free to choose what and how they learn, and accuses the educational system as 'getting large numbers of people to learn what other people have decided will be good for them' p. However, he does have a conception of the 'community' in his educational philosophy, for it is outside the institution of schooling - in the community - that he believes students ought to learn: 'We need to think of a community, and a community of communities, in which it will be much easier for people to share what they know, or to get their questions asked and their curi- osity satisfied' p.
Despite this mention of community, however, Holt must first be considered an individualist in educational philosophy: he promotes the individual freedom of the student and how he or she learns, for it is considered unethical to impose an education determined by others. Carl Rogers also advo- cates for individual aims in education. In his Freedom to Learn, he accuses schools as imparting a 'meaningless' curriculum, which 'does not involve feelings or personal meanings; it has no relevance for the whole person' , p.
Instead he advocates the 'whole-person learning' p. However, unlike Illich and Holt, Rogers does not reject outright the institution of schooling. He believes that these aims can be achieved within the current system, P. Wilson and R. Peters, two influential philosophers of education in the s, defend the interests of the individual by focusing on the notion of 'intrin- sic value'.
However, their arguments, which are based on child-centred education in the case of Wilson and the nature of knowledge within the liberal education tradition in the case of Peters take different forms, In his provocative article 'In defence of bingo', Wilson , following the romantic tradition, strongly distinguishes between education and schooling, and insists that education does not involve imposition or 'socially approved conditioning' p.
Wilson believes that education ought to be intrinsically valuable, rather than extrinsically valuable, for example, a purely instrumental education, or a process which efficiently attempts to meet 'objective needs' and, for him, such a concept makes sense only in terms of 'what interests someone'. Hence Wilson concludes that an educational process ought to identify those goals students Find interesting and hence for him valuable and help them see the significance of these goals.
Peters, too, strongly links education to intrinsic value. But his conception of intrinsic value contrasts with that of Wilson, since for Peters something is intrin- sically worthwhile because it possesses certain unique characteristics which necessarily relate it to some ultimate value.
Based on this conception of intrinsic worth, Peters , concludes that certain subjects for example, philoso- phy, literature, mathematics and history are intrinsically worthwhile and hence assist the individual to free himself or herself from the limitations of narrow usefulness.
He does not reject the institution of schooling, but instead feels that the interests of the students are central to the learning process: ' However, despite this focus on the individual student, Dewey also argues for community aims in education. Dewey's case for promoting a compat- ibility between community and individual aims will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
In this, most individualists in the history of philosophy of education are con- cerned with the individual freedom of the student, and critique the institution of school for neglecting the student's uniqueness and imposing a rigid curriculum on him or her.
However, most of the theories presented thus far have been con- ceived by some as being radical, potentially rejecting educational institutions overall and positing a re-conceptualizing of the structure of schooling. Other contemporary educators also promote individualism in education, but stress that schooling ought to offer private benefits rather than gear toward benefiting the wider society, within the accepted institutional structure.
This view presents schooling as meant to instil knowledge and skills that an individual can utilize to better enable him or her to work and live a self-sufficient life. To generalize, a more moderate individualist might view education at the primary level as meant to provide young children with basic skills, in line with the individual child's aptitudes and interests, in various subject areas that prepare them to operate safely and more independently in the world. These skills are then to be built upon in secondary school, along with knowledge in a wide range of subjects with the primary aim of providing practical skills, geared to the students' interests, which can be used in his or her future.
Higher education, be it university level or techni- cal training, can allow the student to specify his or her knowledge and thus develop a repertoire of more advanced skills, specific to the student, that can be used when he or she seeks employment. And, of course, most aspects of the spec- trum of education can offer enjoyment and fulfilment while contributing to the student's development.
This simple description provides a less radical illustra- tion of an individualistic view on the aims of education, and one that is likely more familiar to the contemporary reader. A student studies to better him or herself, and schools are meant to contribute to the individual's development, while respecting his or her uniqueness, and to prepare that person for life outside the educational arena.
The overarching and paramount aim of education is to serve the needs of the individual, but these are determined by Ministries of Education and interpreted by School Boards - in contrast to the needs determined by the students them- selves or by the interests of 'the students rather than what is in the interest of the student. Therefore, a less radical philosophy of education for the individual generally argues that schooling has tended to suppress the individual.
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Social Aims Of Education Pdf
Education is for society And the social focus of education The social goal of education in the world is that society is always superior to the individual. The aim of education is always based on society. The main objective of education is to always be good for our society. In a nutshell, then, social studies education has two goals: social understanding i. When developing any social studies unit or reading any set of curriculum stan-dards for social studies, keep an eye on these two the goals. Goals for Social Studies: Social.
Notes on the individual and social aims of Education
Like any other human activity, education should have its own aims and objectives. Since education changes according to the changing needs and conditions of the society, the aims of education also vary from time to time in the same society and from society to society at a particular point of time. As ideals of life change from time to time, aims of education also change accordingly.
Aims give direction to activities. Aims of education are formulated keeping in view the needs of situation. Human nature is multisided with multiple needs, which are related to life. Educational aims are correlated to ideals of life. Ideals of life change from time to time.
Education is a continuous lifelong process. The aim of education is to provide direction to the process of education. There are different aims of education like social aim, vocational aim, cultural aim, moral aim, spiritual aim, intellectual aim, etc. Social Aim Human being is considered to be a social animal. Education can make him to be a productive member of the society.
In order to have a clear concept of the nature of these two aims, it is necessary to make an analytical study of the basic points of differences between Individual and Social aims. Individual and society are the two broad aspects of consideration equally important in education. So, one cannot underestimate in favor of the other.
What are the social and individual aims of Education?
Asked by Wiki User. Individual aim of education means that education should develop individuals according to their interests,capacities and talents. The individual aim of education is not new aim. In ancient India , Greece and some other countries also,this aim was given due importance and prime position. In present times also since the entry of Psychology in the field of education,Rousseau,pestolozzi,Froebel,T.
Maheshwari , M. Socio, Phil B. Ed, Ph. Education is a purposeful and ethical activity and each activity as aspect has some aim before it.
The social aim of education takes into consideration the social needs of society. Education is provided with a view to making new members of society familiar with social traditions, manners, mores, customs, etc. In other words, when a society wants to have a very strong social organization and does not permit freedom to the individual members to deviate from its social traditions, it emphasizes to a great extent the social aim of education. In the social aim of education, great importance is attached to society and, therefore, an individual becomes of secondary importance. In countries where socialistic governments are functioning, there is great emphasis on the social aim of education.
The individual aim emphasizes the educational technological aspect. Whereas, Social aim emphasizes on socio-economic aspect of education. Also, individual aims at the development of man's biological potential. On the other hand, social aims at the attainment of social efficiency of man.