four theories of attitude formation and change pdf

Four Theories Of Attitude Formation And Change Pdf

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For this discussion, attitude theories have been organized into four categories see The study of attitudes has been approached with varying emphases and methods during most of this century. Prior to World War II, the emphasis was on definition issues and attitude measurement.

People often evaluate others using fragmentary but meaningful personal information in recent days through social media. It is not clear that whether this process is implicit or explicit and what kind of information is more important in such process. We examined the effects of several meaningful fragmentary information onattitude. Thirty three KAIST students were provided four fragmentary information about four virtual people that are meaningful in evaluating people and frequently seen in real life situations, and were asked to imagine that person during four follow-up sessions. Explicit and Implicit attitudes were measured using Likert scale and Implicit Association Test respectively.


This paper introduces Polias, a new agent-based model of attitude dynamics, rooted in sociopsychological theories. Attitude is a central concept to study human behavior. As many constructs in psychology, there are several ways to define it. Thus, an attitude is an evaluative judgment, and it has a valence to express a positive in favor , neutral or negative disfavor predisposition toward this object.

It has also a valence, where one could slightly dislike spinach while another really hates it. Moreover, when several people are interested in an object, and exert a social behavior on this object share it, exchange opinions about it, etc.

According to scientists in social psychology, the concept of attitude plays a major role in various mechanisms such as the construction of mental representation e. This is the reason why Attitude dynamics is one of the trending topics in the field of social simulation e.

However, Chattoe-Brown points out two critical shortcomings in existing works. First, at the microscopic level, most of the models are not grounded on actual social science theories on attitudes. Indeed, the majority of works are based on the bounded-confidence model Deffuant et al.

Second, on the macroscopic level, the studied sociological phenomenon are not confronted to any empirical data such as opinion polls results. These two points will be further discussed in next sections below. Due to this application context, many examples given in the paper are from the military domain. However, the proposed model is general enough to be used in other context. In the next section, we will first present attitude dynamics models in social simulation and review some related works in social psychology that constitute the foundation of our model.

We will then present our model section 3 and its functional properties section 4. This model will be then investigated through a functional analysis and calibrated on a real world study case that we present in section 5. In this section, we discuss related works on attitude dynamics.

We first present existing models in social simulation and we show how the definition of micro-founded models and validation based on empirical studies has developed recently.

We then discuss existing models in social psychology that serve as the foundation of our own model. The first models were inspired by statistical physics, with binary valued attitudes, and applied to voting Galam They usually view opinions and attitudes as the same thing. Then models appeared with attitudes of continuous values, like the well-known bounded confidence model Deffuant et al.

This is not a suitable approach for two reasons: 1 due to its black-box nature, bounded confidence models the consequences of attitude formation, not the formation process itself the causes ; 2 such models are not rooted in any socio-psychological theory, raising the question of their empirical plausibility Chattoe-Brown There are however some agent-based models aiming at implementing socio-psychological elements.

The attitude revision is based on a variation of bounded confidence model, inheriting its shortcomings. Moreover, all the features contribute to the attitude computation and are equally accessible regardless whether this information is recent or old, important or not for the individual , which contradicts experimental findings and bounded rationality Simon The model simulates the dynamics of political attitudes among a population during an election campaign and the out coming voting behavior.

Another contribution is the introduction of the concept of scenario: political parties stimulate the population through communication activities which intensities vary in time depending on a function given as a simulation parameter. For instance, a function can specify that advertising e orts are highly active at the beginning, at the end or constant over the campaign. This enables the comparison in effectiveness of different scenarios.

Moreover, this model is not confronted to any empirical, quantified phenomenon e. Following psychomimetism Kant , Kant , we design our model in order to mimic and implement several socio-psychological theories, presented in the next section. For this reason, our model will exclude the behavioral component of attitude to focus on cognitive and emotional processes. There are many models of attitude formation and change proposed in social psychology, since the introduction of this concept in by Allport for recent reviews, see e.

Models differ whether attitudes are stable entities stored in long-term memory e. The main argument in favor of the later is to account for attitude changes when context varies. However, as summed up by Fazio Fazio , there are many empirical evidences that contradicts the constructionist view: pre-existent evaluations and attitude values have an impact on attitude.

Moreover, the importance of prior learning is not taken into account by the constructionist perspective. There is also a debate on the way information is processed to compute the attitude. Also, in ELM and HSM, two processes coexist depending on the motivation high or low and the ability high or low to process information. Further research works, including Fazio ; Petty et al. Thus, to build our agent-based model, we departed from the object-evaluation associations framework introduced by Fazio and his colleagues in , where attitudes are "associations between a given object and a given summary evaluation of the object-associations that can vary in strength and, hence, in their accessibility from memory" Fazio The evaluation process we propose combines analytic and emotional processes, it is based on available information about the social object and past emotional experiences with it.

The varying strength of the association enables variability in the attitudes for one person and across several individuals as well. The stronger the association is, the more it will impact other cognitions, behaviors and social processes.

As stated by Fazio Fazio : "attitudes form the cornerstone of a truly functional system by which learning and memory guide behavior in a fruitful direction". The next section presents our multi agent model for simulating attitude formation, based on the following hypothesis from the literature: attitude composed of a cognitive and emotional components, attitude represented as a set of memory associations between evaluations and the social object with varying accessibilities. The goal of the Polias model is to model the impacts on attitudes, within a population, of a series of actions e.

These impacts are subjectively evaluated by the individuals through an evolving attitude value toward each force at stake. The attitude depends on the beliefs the person has that this action 1 actually occurred and 2 produced an impact of a given payoff value positive or negative.

These beliefs are memorized and communicated through other individuals via messages, therefore potentially influencing their attitudes as well. We will first present the key concepts needed to construct the simulation: the different protagonists the population represented by individuals grouped into different factions, and the social actors , the actions, their corresponding beliefs, the attitudes and finally the messages.

Then we describe the attitude dynamics, including communication of beliefs and attitudes computation. The individuals of the population are represented by computational agents and are characterized by a unique social group defined as a set of individuals sharing similar characteristics or goals. The actors represent entities that can act in the simulation and for which we want to analyze the attitudes evolution among the population.

Each of them corresponds to a computational automaton executing its actions list given by the user for instance, in the context of military interventions, the UN can secure a zone, the terrorists can perform a bombing attack We call social object an abstract or concrete, human or artificial entity on which people at least two exert a social behavior attitude formation, opinion exchange, formation of social representation, etc.

Here, the social objects are: the actors and the social groups. An action represents an accomplished task by an actor that impacts a beneficiary individual with a certain amount of quantified payoff. Besides this information is associated to a certain degree of credibility accorded to its source. For a given individual, each social object is associated to at least one attitude value positive when in favor, negative when in disfavor and null when neutral.

We must distinguish between two types of attitude: We must distinguish between two types of attitude: attitudes toward social groups and attitudes toward the actors. People have attitudes toward the different social groups that emanate from social tensions present within the population. The attitude of an agent toward a social group follows this equation:. During a simulation, actors communicate on their actions to the population in which the information is propagated.

These communications are emitted through messages defined by:. The attitude toward an object is computed from a set of beliefs connected to it, weighted by an accessibility in memory factor continuous value. As shown in Figure 2 , in the case of our applications, objects are forces, and beliefs are about actions that might have occurred. The attitude dynamics process unfolds mainly in 5 steps during one tick. Let us now detail these steps.

In order to select the relevant information to use for constructing their attitudes and also to communicate to other individuals, agents estimate a model of narrative interest of the actions in their belief base. Their interest is aroused by any situation which appears simpler to describe than to generate it [3].

To our knowledge, it is the only theory that combines narrative interest and cognitive representation of events that are key concepts in our model.

We used the following formula to compute the interest:. In the Simplicity Theory, several dimensions are considered for the computation of surprise e. In our model, we use two dimensions: the temporal distance and the social distance. We chose these dimensions since they are already modeled in our architecture: simulation ticks represents time and the social network enables us to measure social distance between agents.

The computations of social and temporal surprises are detailed in the Appendix at the end of the document. Emotion and surprise are used to compute the interest of an action, as presented on equation 1.

Each agent can communicate through a given social network, and has a set of potential contacts neighbors in the network. This model combines the payoff of an action for a beneficiary with the attitude of the individual toward this impacted beneficiary. In this way, an individual judging an action that is beneficial for her or for some of her "friends" positive attitude , the overall benefit would be positive.

Conversely, if the action is beneficial for his "enemy" negative attitude , the action would have be evaluated with a negative value. For instance, one could blame the police force for occurring terrorist attacks since their role is to maintain the security and prevent such incidents. This mechanism occurs when an individual faces an action a in which 1 there is a co-responsible actor, 2 its impact is negative i.

However, we propose that this aggregation proceeds in two steps. First, the agent aggregates all the action that share the same action type e.

Figure 3 below summaries our attitude construction model and the relations between the components. The model has been implemented in Java using the Repast [7] multiagent platform. In this section, we present several sensitivity analyses that have been conducted to study the model dynamics, the impact of the parameters and some emerging macroscopic behaviors.

The probability that an action occurs is 0. The represented results in Figure 4 correspond to the averages over replica over 60 runs. We thus define 3 types of cognitive profiles:. Thus, individuals are highly connected within their own group and some inter-group connections enable the diffusion of information over the whole network.

Three phases of positive actions stimulate turn by turn each group i. Figures 5 , 6 and 7 present the attitude mean over time of each group for each experiment. This is enabled by the communication network that ties all the groups, the information about an action is propagated amidst the social network.

Attitudes Formation by Small but Meaningful Personal Information

In psychology, an attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. While attitudes are enduring, they can also change. What's your opinion on the death penalty? Which political party does a better job of running the country? Should prayer be allowed in schools? Should violence on television be regulated?

At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect high faith in intuition or cognition high need for cognition are taken into account.

Lecture 02 - Social Psych. It is a social orientation - an underlying inclination to respond to something either favorably or unfavorably. Cognitive - our thoughts, beliefs, and ideas about something. When a human being is the object of an attitude, the cognitive component is frequently a stereotype, e. Affective - feelings or emotions that something evokes.

Instructional Technology and Attitude Change PDF For this discussion, attitude theories have been organized into four categories (see ): Most of Hovland's attitude change research can be considered classical. Most of the ideas of classical conditioning, and focused almost entirely on the formation of attitudes.

Top 3 Theories of Attitude (With Diagram)

According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions i. When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors dissonance , something must change to eliminate the dissonance. In the case of a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior, it is most likely that the attitude will change to accommodate the behavior. Two factors affect the strength of the dissonance: the number of dissonant beliefs, and the importance attached to each belief.

Attitudes and Behavior in Psychology

An attitude is an enduring set of emotions or beliefs about a particular object, person, organization, issue or event. As we experience the world, our thoughts and emotions coalesce into attitudes, and these then affect our behavior. For instance, if I am visiting a store for the first time, I may have no preconceptions about it. Having experienced it good layout, helpful staff , purchased something many choices, reasonable price and felt good about my purchases good quality, cool brands , next time I may have a positive attitude towards it.

Read this article to learn about the theories of Attitude are : 1. Cognitive-Consistency Theories 2. Functional Theories 3.

Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger)

This paper introduces Polias, a new agent-based model of attitude dynamics, rooted in sociopsychological theories. Attitude is a central concept to study human behavior. As many constructs in psychology, there are several ways to define it.

The Psychology of Attitudes and Attitude Change

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Clarimunda S.

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Louis M.

(see Persuasion Theories). Overload. Research on 'cognitive busyness'suggests that individuals. working under cognitive load are.


Octave L.

theories, social-judgement theory, consistency theory, self-perception theory and functional theory. An adequate theory of attitude change must be able to predict.


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