Blood Chemistry And Cbc Analysis Pdf
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A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle , or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test , are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease , mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function.
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- Functional Blood Chemistry & CBC Analysis
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- ISBN 13: 9780976136712
Bed-wetting, chronic bladder infection, nephrosis Chronic infections, frequent ear infections Anxiety, depression, hyperactivity, inability to concentrate, insomnia, irritability, mental confusion, personality changes, seizures Musculoskeletal Respiratory Skin Bursitis, joint pain, low back pain Asthma, chronic bronchitis, wheezing Acne, eczema, hives, itching, skin rash Nutritional Exam Findings Adult acne and Acne Sores inside the nose rosacea Scars on tympanic Salute sign membrane Intranasal polyps Generalized itching Red rash over nose Discoloration of nails and under eyes Dark circles under eyes Conjunctivitis Geographic tongue Recurrent styes Scalloped tongue Primary FDM Testing Findings on Blood Chemistry Analysis Functional Physiology, Dysfunctions, and Assessments of the G.
Download Blood Chemistry Cbc Analysis PDF.
Having regular lab tests blood and sometimes urine tests is necessary to care for your health. The complete blood count CBC and blood chemistry tests described below check your overall health, including whether you have side effects from your HIV medications. When you are first diagnosed with HIV and when you first start taking HIV drugs, you will get "baseline" blood tests that show your health at that moment.
Later tests can be compared against these results to see how things are going, and if they are changing. Most lab tests should be done every three to six months, or as often as your health care provider recommends. Because different labs use different equipment, test results from different labs can vary. Therefore, it is a good idea to have your tests done at the same lab each time. If you get an unexpected result on one test, your health care provider will probably want you to get a second test to see if the results are the same as the first one.
Try not to worry too much about a single unexpected result—usually trends over time are more important. Most lab reports show the normal range of results from each test and highlight any of your results that are outside the normal range. The ranges listed below are general and may not be exactly the same for your lab. Look at your lab report for the normal ranges.
Blood is made up of different types of cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
The complete blood count CBC measures the amount of these cells in a sample of your blood. CBCs are especially important for people living with HIV because some HIV drugs and some infections can cause changes in the number of red or white blood cells. Blood chemistry tests measure certain chemicals in your blood. Results of these tests give your health care provider important information about your general health, how well your organs such as the liver and kidneys are working, and whether you may be experiencing side effects from HIV drugs.
Abnormal results can point to a problem that needs to be addressed. Important blood chemistry tests include:. Staying physically active , eating well , and certain medications can help to lower high lipid levels. For more information, see our fact sheets on Hyperlipidemia and Lipodystrophy and Body Changes.
Labs routinely group certain chemistry tests together and call them panels or profiles. Some common panels you may see listed on your lab report are:. Since many people living with HIV have no noticeable symptoms of health problems, it is important to get regular lab tests to monitor how you are doing. Abnormal blood tests can be a sign of serious health problems and need to be addressed as soon as possible so that you can remain healthy and strong.
Whether or not you are taking HIV drugs, all tests listed above are a key part of your medical care. Regular monitoring is an important way to take charge of your health.
Join our community and become a member to find support and connect to other women living with HIV. Get basic information about a variety of approaches to treating the metabolic changes that may result from living with HIV or taking HIV drugs.
Lipodystrophy means abnormal fat changes. This article addresses treatments for fat loss, or lipoatrophy. Get basic information about lipodystrophy: body shape changes, metabolic complications, and causes and treatment of fat loss and fat gain. Skip to main content.
The Basics When you are first diagnosed with HIV and when you first start taking HIV drugs, you will get "baseline" blood tests that show your health at that moment. Complete Blood Count CBC Blood is made up of different types of cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells erythrocytes Red blood cells RBCs carry oxygen throughout the body. A typical RBC count for women is four to five million red blood cells.
Hemoglobin is the protein in RBCs that allows them to carry oxygen. For more information, see our fact sheet on Anemia and Women. White blood cells leukocytes White blood cells WBCs are produced by the immune system and help defend the body against infection. A normal total WBC count is 4, to 10, or 4. A high count may mean that your body is fighting an infection.
Low counts may be caused by certain drugs or infections. There are different types of white blood cells that are listed on your lab report as "the differential.
Neutrophils These cells fight infections caused by bacteria. A normal neutrophil percentage is about 50 to 70 percent of the total WBC count. When your neutrophil count is extremely low a condition called neutropenia , you are more likely to get bacterial infections. Lymphocytes There are two types of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells. B cells make antibodies proteins that identify germs and T cells attack germs.
Usually, lymphocytes account for about 20 to 40 percent of the total number of WBCs. CD4 cells are a type of T cell that is measured separately. Monocytes and Macrophages These cells engulf or "eat" and destroy disease-causing organisms germs. They normally make up about two to ten percent of the total WBC count.
Eosinophils and Basophils These cells play a role in allergic reactions and defend against parasites organisms that live inside a person and feed off him or her.
They normally make up about one to eight percent of the total WBC count. Platelets Thrombocytes Platelets are necessary for blood clotting. A normal platelet count is about , to , If your platelet count is low, you may bleed or bruise easily.
Blood Chemistry Blood chemistry tests measure certain chemicals in your blood. Important blood chemistry tests include: Liver function These tests measure how well your liver is working. Some of the tests measure liver enzymes proteins that help the body break down other substances such as alanine transaminase ALT , aspartate transaminase AST , and alkaline phosphatase ALP. High levels of liver enzymes may be a sign of liver inflammation. Several HIV drugs can cause elevated liver enzymes.
Liver function tests also measure bilirubin, which comes from the breakdown of hemoglobin from RBCs. High levels of bilirubin may indicate liver problems. Taking the HIV drug Reyataz atazanavir can increase bilirubin levels; however, this rise in bilirubin is harmless. Kidney function These tests measure how well your kidneys are working.
They include blood urea nitrogen BUN , creatinine, and eGFR, which is a measure of how well your kidney is filtering different chemicals in the blood. Kidney tests are especially important if you are taking Viread tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, or TDF or any of the combination drugs that contain TDF. Electrolytes Electrolytes play important roles in the healthy functioning of cells, nerves, and organs.
Bicarbonate CO 2 , chloride, potassium, and sodium are electrolytes. Electrolyte imbalances may be caused by not getting enough nutrients malnutrition or water dehydration , or by kidney problems. Blood sugar glucose Your body uses glucose for energy. High blood sugar levels hyperglycemia can be a sign of diabetes or insulin resistance when the body does not respond to insulin, a hormone to help control glucose levels.
High glucose levels can be a side effect of HIV drugs. Your health care provider can monitor your levels through glucose tests. For the most accurate results, it is best to check blood sugar levels when you have been fasting not eating or drinking anything but water for about eight hours.
For more information, see our fact sheet on Diabetes. Blood fat lipids Many people living with HIV have an increased amount of fat, or lipids, in their blood. Some lipids are cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher cholesterol levels can increase the risk of a heart attack or stroke. Higher triglycerides can increase the risk of damage to the pancreas pancreatitis. Your lab report will list the amount of the following lipids in your blood for the most accurate results, it is best to check lipid levels when you have been fasting : Total cholesterol Cholesterol is a fatty substance that circulates in the blood.
It is best to keep your total cholesterol level below Low-density lipoproteins LDL This is "bad" cholesterol, which can clog the arteries. It is best to keep your LDL level below to High-density lipoproteins HDL This is "good" cholesterol, which helps reduce the risk of heart disease. It is best to get your HDL level up to at least Triglycerides After eating, energy that is not needed right away is converted into a substance called triglycerides, which is stored in fat cells.
It is best to keep your triglyceride level below to Blood proteins These tests provide information on nutrition problems and help diagnose kidney disease, liver disease, and many other conditions. Tests include albumin and total protein. Calcium Calcium, one of the most important minerals in your body, is a major part of bones and teeth. Blood calcium is tested to check for a range of conditions relating to the bones, heart, nerves, kidneys, and teeth.
It is important to remember that you can still have weak bones osteoporosis , even if your calcium blood test is normal because the test only measures calcium circulating in the blood. For more information, see our fact sheet on Bone Health. Some common panels you may see listed on your lab report are: Basic metabolic panel: includes calcium, electrolytes, kidney function, and glucose Comprehensive metabolic panel: includes same tests as basic panel plus blood proteins and liver function Lipid panel: includes cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides The Bottom Line Since many people living with HIV have no noticeable symptoms of health problems, it is important to get regular lab tests to monitor how you are doing.
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Functional Blood Chemistry & CBC Analysis
Having regular lab tests blood and sometimes urine tests is necessary to care for your health. The complete blood count CBC and blood chemistry tests described below check your overall health, including whether you have side effects from your HIV medications. When you are first diagnosed with HIV and when you first start taking HIV drugs, you will get "baseline" blood tests that show your health at that moment. Later tests can be compared against these results to see how things are going, and if they are changing. Most lab tests should be done every three to six months, or as often as your health care provider recommends. Because different labs use different equipment, test results from different labs can vary.
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Clinical Laboratory Testing from a Functional Perspective.. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without written permission from the authors, except for the inclusion of quotations in a review.
Sick and tired of telling your patients that their blood tests look normal when you know they are far from it? This manual presents a diagnostic system of blood chemistry and CBC analysis that focuses on physiological function as a marker of health. By looking for optimum function we increase our ability to detect dysfunction. By looking for optimum function we increase our ability to detect dysfunctions long before disease manifests. Conventional lab testing becomes a truly preventative and prognostic tool.
Screening tool to confirm a hematologic disorder, to establish or rule out a diagnosis, to detect an unsuspected hematologic disorder, or to monitor effects of radiation or chemotherapy. A morphology evaluation is performed at an additional charge when the automated 5-part differential is invalid or when abnormal results are identified upon microscopic examination. A peripheral blood smear review is performed at an additional charge when pathologist expertise is needed for clinically significant diagnosis. The primary function of the RBC is to deliver oxygen to tissues.
Такой список выдает только принтер Фонтейна.
ISBN 13: 9780976136712
- Что показалось тебе странным. Сьюзан восхитилась спектаклем, который на ее глазах разыгрывал коммандер. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает с чем-то очень сложным, фильтры никогда ни с чем подобным не сталкивались. Боюсь, что в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ завелся какой-то неизвестный вирус. - Вирус? - снисходительно хмыкнул Стратмор, - Фил, я высоко ценю твою бдительность, очень высоко. Но мы с мисс Флетчер проводим диагностику особого рода. Это файл высочайшей сложности.
Он не очень-то об этом распространялся. Сьюзан трудно было поверить в такое удачное совпадение. - Его погубило слабое сердце - вот так .
Нет, вообще-то я… - Из туристического бюро. - Нет, я… - Слушайте, я знаю, зачем вы пришли! - Старик попытался сесть в кровати. - Меня не удастся запугать. Я уже говорил это и могу повторить тысячу раз - Пьер Клушар описывает мир таким, каким его видит. Некоторые ваши туристические путеводители старательно скрывают правду, обещая бесплатный ночлег в городе, но Монреаль тайме не продается. Ни за какие деньги. - Простите, сэр, вы, кажется, меня не… - Merde alors.
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Если цена не превышала тысячи долларов, Фонтейн никак не реагировал. Тысчонка за сеанс. Бринкерхофф ухмыльнулся. Деньги налогоплательщиков в действии.
- Кроме того, ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже больше двадцати часов не может справиться с каким-то файлом. Фонтейн наморщил лоб. - Это по вашим данным.
Ему не хватило лишь нескольких сантиметров. Пальцы Беккера схватили воздух, а дверь повернулась. Девушка с сумкой была уже на улице. - Меган! - завопил он, грохнувшись на пол.
Тут ничего такого. Сьюзан с трудом воспринимала происходящее.