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- The GREENH-City interventional research protocol on health in all policies
- The GREENH-City interventional research protocol on health in all policies
- Digital rights management
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The GREENH-City interventional research protocol on health in all policies
Digital rights management DRM tools or technological protection measures TPM  are a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, and the creation and distribution of tools used for such circumvention.
Common DRM techniques include restrictive licensing agreements : The access to digital materials, copyright and public domain is restricted to consumers as a condition of entering a website or when downloading software. These technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content legally, such as by fair use.
DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry e. Industry has expanded the usage of DRM to more traditional hardware products, such as Keurig 's coffeemakers ,   Philips ' light bulbs ,   mobile device power chargers ,    and John Deere 's tractors. The use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Proponents of DRM argue that it is necessary to prevent intellectual property from being copied freely, just as physical locks are needed to prevent personal property from being stolen,  that it can help the copyright holder maintain artistic control ,  and that it can ensure continued revenue streams.
The rise of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and organizations, particularly within the music and movie industries. While analog media inevitably lose quality with each copy generation , and in some cases even during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality.
The rise of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media which may or may not be copyrighted originally in a physical, analog or broadcast form into a universal, digital form this process is called ripping for portability or viewing later.
This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media also called digital piracy much easier. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and also enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder. The underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be completely unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would actually be encouraged to do so.
One of the oldest and least complicated DRM protection methods for computer and Nintendo Entertainment System games was when the game would pause and prompt the player to look up a certain page in a booklet or manual that came with the game; if the player lacked access to such material, they would not be able to continue the game. A product key , a typically alphanumerical serial number used to represent a license to a particular piece of software, served a similar function.
During the installation process or launch for the software, the user is asked to input the key; if the key correctly corresponds to a valid license typically via internal algorithms , the key is accepted, then the user who bought the game can continue. In modern practice, product keys are typically combined with other DRM practices such as online "activation" , as the software could be cracked to run without a product key, or " keygen " programs could be developed to generate keys that would be accepted.
Some DRM systems limit the number of installations a user can activate on different computers by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be 'recovered' when the game is uninstalled. This not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes, but can also prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatting the computer's storage device.
The use of the DRM scheme in 's Spore backfired and there were protests, resulting in a considerable number of users seeking an unlicensed version instead. This backlash against the three-activation limit was a significant factor in Spore becoming the most pirated game in , with TorrentFreak compiling a "top 10" list with Spore topping the list.
Many mainstream publishers continued to rely on online DRM throughout the later half of and early , including Electronic Arts , Ubisoft , Valve , and Atari , The Sims 3 being a notable exception in the case of Electronic Arts. Ubisoft formally announced a return to online authentication on 9 February , through its Uplay online game platform, starting with Silent Hunter 5 , The Settlers 7 , and Assassin's Creed II.
The software did this by emulating a Ubisoft server for the game. Later that month, a real crack was released that was able to remove the connection requirement altogether. Other developers, such as Blizzard Entertainment are also shifting to a strategy where most of the game logic is on the "side" or taken care of by the servers of the game maker.
Blizzard uses this strategy for its game Diablo III and Electronic Arts used this same strategy with their reboot of SimCity , the necessity of which has been questioned. Manufacturers of DVD players must license this technology and implement it in their devices so that they can decrypt the encrypted content to play it. The CSS license agreement includes restrictions on how the DVD content is played, including what outputs are permitted and how such permitted outputs are made available.
This keeps the encryption intact as the video material is played out to a TV. The legality of DeCSS is questionable: one of the authors has been the subject of a lawsuit, and reproduction of the keys themselves is subject to restrictions as illegal numbers. Encryption can ensure that other restriction measures cannot be bypassed by modifying the software, so sophisticated DRM systems rely on encryption to be fully effective.
Further restrictions can be applied to electronic books and documents, in order to prevent copying, printing, forwarding, and saving backups. This is common for both e-publishers and enterprise Information Rights Management.
It typically integrates with content management system software but corporations such as Samsung Electronics also develop their own custom DRM systems.
While some commentators believe DRM makes e-book publishing complex,  it has been used by organizations such as the British Library in its secure electronic delivery service to permit worldwide access to substantial numbers of rare documents which, for legal reasons, were previously only available to authorized individuals actually visiting the Library's document centre at Boston Spa in England.
PVP tries to stop DRM-restricted content from playing while unsigned software is running, in order to prevent the unsigned software from accessing the content.
Additionally, PVP can encrypt information during transmission to the monitor or the graphics card , which makes it more difficult to make unauthorized recordings. Bohemia Interactive have used a form of technology since Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis , wherein if the game copy is suspected of being unauthorized, annoyances like guns losing their accuracy or the players being turned into a bird are introduced.
Also in , Microsoft released Windows Media DRM , which read instructions from media files in a rights management language that stated what the user may do with the media. Digital watermarks are steganographically embedded within audio or video data during production or distribution.
They can be used for recording the copyright owner, the distribution chain or identifying the purchaser of the music. They are not complete DRM mechanisms in their own right, but are used as part of a system for copyright enforcement, such as helping provide prosecution evidence for legal purposes, rather than direct technological restriction.
Additionally, comparison of two separately obtained copies of audio using simple, home-grown algorithms can often reveal watermarks. Sometimes, metadata is included in purchased media which records information such as the purchaser's name, account information, or email address.
Also included may be the file's publisher, author, creation date, download date, and various notes. This information is not embedded in the played content, like a watermark, but is kept separate, but within the file or stream. This information is included as MPEG standard metadata. The CableCard standard is used by cable television providers in the United States to restrict content to services to which the customer has subscribed. It required that all HDTVs obey a stream specification determining whether a stream can be recorded.
This could block instances of fair use, such as time-shifting. It achieved more success elsewhere when it was adopted by the Digital Video Broadcasting Project DVB , a consortium of about broadcasters, manufacturers, network operators, software developers, and regulatory bodies from about 35 countries involved in attempting to develop new digital TV standards.
Upon publication by DVB, the technical specification was submitted to European governments in March As with much DRM, the CPCM system is intended to control use of copyrighted material by the end-user, at the direction of the copyright holder.
According to Ren Bucholz of the EFF , which paid to be a member of the consortium, "You won't even know ahead of time whether and how you will be able to record and make use of particular programs or devices". Nobody has yet stepped forward to provide a Compliance and Robustness regime for the standard though several are rumoured to be in development , so it is not presently possible to fully implement a system, as there is nowhere to obtain the necessary device certificates.
In addition, platforms such as Steam may include DRM mechanisms. Most of the mechanisms above are not DRM mechanisms per se but are still referred to as DRM mechanisms, rather being copy protection mechanisms. The United States implementation is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA , while in Europe the treaty has been implemented by the Information Society Directive , which requires member states of the European Union to implement legal protections for technological prevention measures.
In [update] , the lower house of the French parliament adopted such legislation as part of the controversial DADVSI law, but added that protected DRM techniques should be made interoperable, a move which caused widespread controversy in the United States. The Tribunal de grande instance de Paris concluded in , that the complete blocking of any possibilities of making private copies was an impermissible behaviour under French copyright law.
On 25 April , the European Parliament supported the first directive of EU, which aims to harmonize criminal law in the member states. It adopted a first reading report on harmonizing the national measures for fighting copyright abuse. If the European Parliament and the Council approve the legislation, the submitted directive will oblige the member states to consider a crime a violation of international copyright committed with commercial purposes.
The text suggests numerous measures: from fines to imprisonment, depending on the gravity of the offense. The EP members supported the Commission motion, changing some of the texts. They excluded patent rights from the range of the directive and decided that the sanctions should apply only to offenses with commercial purposes.
Copying for personal, non-commercial purposes was also excluded from the range of the directive. In , the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled in favor of reselling copyrighted games, prohibiting any preventative action that would prevent such transaction. A rightholder who has marketed a copy in the territory of a Member State of the EU thus loses the right to rely on his monopoly of exploitation in order to oppose the resale of that copy.
In , the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that circumventing DRM on game devices may be legal under some circumstances, limiting the legal protection to only cover technological measures intended to prevent or eliminate unauthorised acts of reproduction, communication, public offer or distribution.
Any distribution of copies whose rights management information was modified was also criminalized by Section 65B. The Standing Committee noted that similar terms in developed terms were used to considerable complexity and therefore in light of the same, it was preferable to keep it open-ended. A prison sentence is mandatory under both provisions, with a maximum term of 2 years in addition to fine, which is discretionary. While the statute doesn't include exceptions to copyright infringement, including fair use directly, Section 65A allows measures "unless they are expressly prohibited", which may implicitly include such exceptions.
Section 65B digital rights management information allows resort to other civil provisions, unlike Section 65A. It is important to note that the WIPO Internet Treaties themselves do not mandate criminal sanctions, merely requiring "effective legal remedies. Israeli law does not currently expressly prohibit the circumvention of technological measures used to implement digital rights management. In June The Israeli Ministry of Justice proposed a bill to prohibit such activities, but the Knesset did not pass it.
In September , the Supreme Court ruled that the current copyright law could not be interpreted to prohibit the circumvention of digital rights management, though the Court left open the possibility that such activities could result in liability under the law of unjust enrichment.
In May , the Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA passed as an amendment to US copyright law , which criminalizes the production and dissemination of technology that lets users circumvent technical copy-restriction methods. Reverse engineering of existing systems is expressly permitted under the Act under the specific condition of a safe harbor, where circumvention is necessary to achieve interoperability with other software.
See 17 U. Open-source software to decrypt content scrambled with the Content Scrambling System and other encryption techniques presents an intractable problem with the application of the Act.
Much depends on the intent of the actor. If the decryption is done for the purpose of achieving interoperability of open source operating systems with proprietary operating systems, it would be protected by Section f the Act. Corley, F. However, dissemination of such software for the purpose of violating or encouraging others to violate copyrights has been held illegal.
See Universal City Studios, Inc. Reimerdes, F. However, those who wish to preserve the DRM systems have attempted to use the Act to restrict the distribution and development of such software, as in the case of DeCSS. Although the Act contains an exception for research, the exception is subject to vague qualifiers that do little to reassure researchers.
The DMCA has affected cryptography , because many [ who? In , the arrest of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov for alleged infringement of the DMCA was a highly publicized example of the law's use to prevent or penalize development of anti-DRM measures.
The DMCA has also been cited as chilling to non-criminal inclined users, such as students of cryptanalysis including, Professor Edward Felten and students at Princeton University ;  security consultants, such as Netherlands based Niels Ferguson , who declined to publish vulnerabilities he discovered in Intel 's secure-computing scheme due to fear of being arrested under the DMCA when he travels to the US; and blind or visually impaired users of screen readers or other assistive technologies.
In Europe, there have been several ongoing dialog activities that are characterized by their consensus-building intention:. Many organizations, prominent individuals, and computer scientists are opposed to DRM.
The GREENH-City interventional research protocol on health in all policies
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Digital rights management
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