Soil And Water Conservation Engineering Pdf
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- Soil and water conservation engineering
- Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Seventh Edition
- Soil & Water Conservation Engg. 3(2+1)
Soil and water conservation engineering
Topic 1 Surveying definition and objectives of survey, primary divisions of surveying, geodetic and plane surveys, classifications, uses of surveys. Numerical problems on Simpson s, trapezoidal rules. Leveling - definition, description of dumpy level and leveling staff.
Terminology connected with leveling - datum, elevation, station, back sight, fore sight, intermediate sight, height of instrument, bench mark and its types, change point.
Leveling procedure - temporary adjustments in dumpy level, level field note book, recording procedure in level field note book. Reduction of levels - height of collimation method, rise and fall method, and numerical problems connected with these two methods. Types of leveling - simple, leveling, differential leveling and profile leveling.
Contour survey - definition, characteristics and uses of contours. Irrigation - definition, classification of irrigation projects based on Culturable Command Area CCA and expenditure, benefits of irrigation, ill effects of irrigation, flow irrigation and lift irrigation.
Water sources. Water lifting devices - classification of pumps, centrifugal pump, principle of operation. Pump characteristics - pump efficiencies, capacity calculation based on irrigation scheduling, power calculations of centrifugal pump.
Deep well pumps turbine and submersible pumps, installation and working principles of these pumps. Measurement of irrigation water importance. Methods of measuring water volumetric and area, velocity method. Direct discharge methods - water meter, weirs, orifices. Parshall flume - installation of these devices, conditions for weir installation. Discharge calculation of rectangular and triangular weirs, advantages of parshall flume over the weirs. Page No. Water conveyance systems - open channel, definitions of wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, hydraulic slope, area of cross section and free board.
Mannings formula for estimating mean velocity, side slopes of channels for different soils. Capacity calculations of open channels. Underground pipeline, advantages of earthen channels, disadvantages, type of pipes recommended for underground pipeline.
Components of underground pipe line, installation procedure, discharge calculation of underground pipe line. Irrigation methods - sprinkler irrigation, scope, functional components of sprinkler system and their working. Types of sprinkler irrigation, operation and maintenance of the system, cost economics. Drip irrigation system - scope, functional components of drip system and their working principles. Operation and maintenance of the drip system, cost economics.
Soil and water conservation - definition and scope, soil erosion - definition, types, geological and accelerated soil erosion, causes and ill effects of soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion - water and wind erosion definitions, rain drop splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion, stream bank erosion and their stage of occurrence. Erosion control measures engineering measures, contour bunds, graded bunds. Broad based terraces and bench terraces.
Lecture 1 Surveying definition and objectives of survey, primary divisions of surveying, geodetic and plane surveys, classification, uses of surveys.
Surveying It is the art of determination of horizontal distances, differences in elevation, directions, angles, locations, areas and volumes on or near the surface of the earth. It involves the measurement and recording of the size and shape including the vertical shape of an area on the earths surface. The process of survey divided into two parts: a Field work- taking measurements b Office drawing workcomputing and.
The results of surveys when plotted and drawn on paper constitute a plan. A plan is, the representation to some scale, of the ground and the objects upon it as projected on a horizontal plane, which is represented by the plane of the paper on which the plan is drawn.
The representation is called a map, if the scale is small. If the scale is large, it is called a plan. On plan, only horizontal distances are shown. The scale of a map is the fixed relation that, every distance on the map bears to the corresponding distance on the ground.
Suppose, if one cm on a map represents 5 m on the ground, the scale of a map is 5m to 1 cm. The object of a geodetic surveying is to determine the precise positions on the surface of the earth of a system of widely distant points and the dimensions of areas. In this survey, the curvature of the earth is taken into account, since large. Artificial earth satellites have come into wide use in this survey. The curvature of the earth is not taken into account, as the surveys extend only to small areas.
The line joining any two points as a straight line, and all angles are plane angles. Surveys normally carried out for the location and construction of roads, canals and, buildings. In general, the surveys necessary for the works of man are plane surveys. Classification based upon the nature of the field of survey: a Land Surveys. Classification upon the object of survey: i Archaeological surveys. Classification based upon the methods employed in survey: a Triangulation Surveys.
Classification based upon the instrument employed: i Chain Surveys. It includes laying out contour and terrace lines for soil conservation, drainage lines, profile lines for land leveling and ditch lines for irrigation, computing field and farm areas and laying out farm buildings and roads. Lecture 2 Instruments used in chain survey -constructional details of metric chain, metallic and steel tapes, ranging rods, arrows, cross-staff, optical square, plumb bob and pegs.
Of the various methods of determining distance, chaining is the most accurate and common method. For work of ordinary precision, a chain is used. But, where great accuracy is required, a steel tape is invariably used. Chain 2. Tape Instruments used for marking survey stations 1.
Ranging rod 2. Offset rod 3. Laths and whites 4. Pegs Instruments used for setting right angles 1. Cross staff 2. Optical square Other instruments: 1. Arrow 2. Plumb bob 2. The ends of each link bent into a loop and connected together by means of three oval rings which offered flexibility to the chain and make less liable to become kinked.
The joints of the links are usually open, but in the best chains they are welded so as to render the chain less liable to stretching. The ends of the chain provided with brass handles for dragging the chain on the ground, each with a swivel joint, so that the chain can be turned round without twisting. The length of a link is the distance between the centers of the two consecutive middle.
The end links include the handles. Metallic tags or indicators of distinctive pattern are fixed at various distinctive points of the chain to felicitate quick reading of fraction of a chain in surveying measurements.
The chains are made in length of 20 and 30 meters. To enable the reading of fractions of a chain with out much difficulty, tallies are fixed at every five-meter length and small brass rings are provided at every metre length, except where tallies are attached. Connecting links between two large links are oval in shape, the central one being a circular ring. The length of the chain is marked over the handle to indicate the length and also to distinguish from non-metallic chains. The length of each link is 0.
The advantages of the chain are : i it is very suitable for rough usage ii it can be easily repaired in the field iii it can be easily read. The Gunters chain is 66 ft. Therefore, each end link is equal to 0. It is very convenient for measuring distances in miles and furlongs and for measuring land when the unit of area is an acre, on account of its simple relation to the mile and the acre. It is 33 ft. The construction details are same as that of a Gunters chain.
It is used on all engineering surveys. The distances Steel Band: The steel band, also called the band chain, consists of a ribbon of steel with a brass swivel handle at each end.
It is 20 or 30 m long and 16 mm wide. It is wound on open steel cross, or on a metal reel in a closed case. The graduations are marked in two ways: a The band is divided by brass studs at every 0.
Brass tallies are fixed at every 5 m length of the band. It is best adapted to general field work and rough usage. For accurate work, the steel band is now preferred. It is lighter and easier to handle than the chain. It is practically unalterable in length. It must be protected from rust by frequent cleaning and oiling. Tapes are. For surveying, mostly 30 m tape is used.
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Seventh Edition
Front Matter Citation: Pages i-xvii doi: Language: English. Study and use of surveying and leveling instruments. Chain and cross staff survey. Plane table survey. Computation of area and volume. Soil erosion control.
Topic 1 Surveying definition and objectives of survey, primary divisions of surveying, geodetic and plane surveys, classifications, uses of surveys. Numerical problems on Simpson s, trapezoidal rules. Leveling - definition, description of dumpy level and leveling staff. Terminology connected with leveling - datum, elevation, station, back sight, fore sight, intermediate sight, height of instrument, bench mark and its types, change point. Leveling procedure - temporary adjustments in dumpy level, level field note book, recording procedure in level field note book. Reduction of levels - height of collimation method, rise and fall method, and numerical problems connected with these two methods.
Soil & Water Conservation Engg. 3(2+1)
Week 1. Pedostructure additional information. Introduction to Surveying Drainage Areas.
Только и делов - вывести человека на свежий воздух. Халохот отчаянно озирался, но Беккера нигде не было. Сотни людей стояли на коленях перед алтарем, принимая причастие.
Она смутно помнила, что для создания этого центра из земли пришлось извлечь 250 метрических тонн породы. Командный центр главного банка данных располагался на глубине шестидесяти с лишним метров от земной поверхности, что обеспечивало его неуязвимость даже в случае падения вакуумной или водородной бомбы. На высокой рабочей платформе-подиуме в центре комнаты возвышался Джабба, как король, отдающий распоряжения своим подданным.
Если эта программа попадет на рынок, любой третьеклассник, имеющий модем, получит возможность отправлять зашифрованные сообщения, которые АНБ не сможет прочесть. Это означает конец нашей разведки. Но мысли Сьюзан были далеко от политических последствий создания Цифровой крепости. Она пыталась осознать истинный смысл случившегося.
Сьюзан вздохнула. Она чувствовала себя виноватой из-за того, что так резко говорила с коммандером. Ведь если кто и может справиться с возникшей опасностью, да еще без посторонней помощи, так это Тревор Стратмор. Он обладал сверхъестественной способностью одерживать верх над всеми, кто бросал ему вызов. Шесть месяцев назад, когда Фонд электронных границ обнародовал информацию о том, что подводная лодка АНБ прослушивает подводные телефонные кабели, Стратмор организовал утечку информации о том, что эта подводная лодка на самом деле занимается незаконным сбросом токсичных отходов.