Ethics And Values In Social Work Banks Pdf
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Synthesizing the complex ideas and concepts that characterize social work's value base, Sarah Banks expertly provides a clear and systematic account of professional ethics in relation to social work practice, framed within a global context. Sign up to our newsletter and receive discounts and inspiration for your next reading experience.
The Code of Ethics states the values and ethical principles on which the profession is based. The Association has a duty to ensure as far as possible that its members discharge their ethical obligations and are afforded the professional rights necessary for the safeguarding and promotion of the rights of people who use social work services. People who use social work services may be individuals children, young people or adults , families or other groups or communities. Social workers have a responsibility to promote and work to the Code of Ethics in carrying out their obligations to people who use social work services, to their employers, to one another, to colleagues in other disciplines and to society. The Association commends and promotes the Code of Ethics to all social workers, educators and employers of social workers in the UK.
Questioning the relevance of social work codes of ethics strikes at the heart of professionalism and professional control. Codes of ethics have been reified and upheld as one of the defining aspects of the social work profession Banks In recent years however, there have been increasing critiques of codes and their purpose in social work education and practice. This paper presents research which I have undertaken with Carolyn Noble from the University of Western Sydney for more than five years.
The project emerged as we questioned the role of social work ethics as an arbiter with students who were floundering during the fieldwork practicum. Since that time our work has taken new twists and turns as we sought to explore perceptions of social work practitioners, educators and students and to look for theoretical insights, particularly from postmodernism.
In particular we have questioned the incorporation of universal content in codes of ethics for the social work profession. Our analysis is consistent with a developing critique of universalising approaches which has emerged following engagement with postmodern perspectives in social work Howe , Leonard , The exploration has been part of a journey to see the formulation of a more relevant moral framework for the profession.
This paper takes the work a step further by applying our reflections to the situation of Indigenous people in Australia, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.
Reasons identified for codes of professinal ethics include a contribution to the professional status of an occupation, to establish and maintain professional identity, to guide practitioners how to act and to protect users from malpractice or abuse Banks , p. Codes of Ethics seem here to stay, although some challenges have been presented this notion.
For Bauman , p. However, he is not necessarily calling for the abandonment of ethics, but the rejection of typically modernist ways of going about moral problems, including the search for absolutes. This means social work has to rise to the challenge of dealing with competing voices Flax and embracing an ethic which asserts a responsibility to those who have been reduced to objects and acted upon by those with knowledge Leonard What this Code should look like, is yet to be resolved.
Although social work has always had a progressive element in its ranks, it is in the past two decades that a perspective has developed which challenges the hegemony of conventional social work theories of 'person reform' and 'social reform'. These perspectives have placed emphasis on the power relations between people of different ethnic, religious and cultural backgrounds, different sexual preferences and different generational positions.
The concept of difference and the emphasis on diversity has extended social work's theoretical concerns into the development of more pluralistic notions of theory and practice perspectives. A problem with the development of the emerging frameworks is that to now they have received inconsistent treatment in the literature and have been slow to progress beyond conventional analysis of conventional social work. In the main, the conventional and the progressive views stand in opposition to each other, representing conflicting philosophies and ideologies.
Leads from the postmodern conception of difference further challenges singular notions of rationalism and universalism and focus attention on those positioned as 'other'. An examination of the social work codes of a number of western countries supported our concerns about the critical lag between theory and ethics. These codes incorporated at best, global assumptions based on general notions of social justice, elimination of discrimination and self-determination.
For example, the Standards of Practice incorporated in the Australian Code of Ethics includes a statement under the umbrella of commitment to social justice that:. At first glance this provision would suggest support for a pluralistic society, which encourages diversity of belief Rhodes , p. But what is the shared value this is premised upon? Is it that social workers should always act to produce the greatest amount of good, or the least amount of harm?
Rhodes advances concerns about the application of justice principles within the United States NASW Code of Ethics, arguing that there is not general agreement on such fundamental concepts. She states , p. By not specifying the nature of justice, a social worker cannot be expected to understand the form of their responsibility. Through the colonisation process Australia's original inhabitants were systematically stripped of their culture, their land and their rights, and have been subjected to Eurocentric impositions by a variety of professions, including social work.
The revised Code does, but is limited. In section 3. These are noble sentiments indeed, and reverse the exclusion of Indigenous people in the previous AASW Code, an invisibility which mirrors the exclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from the annals of Australian history. Yet, these new provisions do not go far enough. Following on from direct references to Indigenous peoples, the revised Code leaps from the rights of Indigenous people to more general statements on cultural diversity, which can be seen as an endeavour to 'universalise' the particular.
It also does not lament the place social work has had in the oppression of Indigenous people; nor does it specify the need to consult with Indigenous groups on matters of concern to their communities; nor does it comment on the existing over-representation of Indigenous children in the systems which are serviced by social workers, particularly the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. It also presents Indigenous peoples as 'other' failing to acknowledge the increasing number of Indigenous social workers.
The new clauses fail to unravel the complexities of cultural diversity, anti-oppressive practice and discrimination. They fail to distinguish between individual rights and collective rights, between mainstreaming approaches and sovereignty and between service delivery and rights to land and culture.
The provisions reflect a view that Aboriginal people are a minority who suffer particular disadvantages, not that they are Indigenous people with rights and status D'Souza As a profession we need to be careful to avoid a return to what Colin Tatz , p.
It was the concern that social work in the main continues to give credence to universal principles, which attracted us to a postmodern analysis of social work ethics. This tension has been expanded by Williams , p.
Discussing the Indigenous situation, Dodson refers to the 'societal stability' argument which is posed by those who, in order to promote the dominance of a chosen system, actively discourage, suppress, marginalise or neglect benignly other competing systems, with such sacrifices required 'in the name of justice, stability and the majority interest' , p.
One Code which leads the way is the New Zealand Code which incorporates detailed provisions about Maori people. Reformulated in , the New Zealand Code attempts to accommodate difference and diversity.
Section 3 of this Code, the Bicultural Code of Practice of the NZASW, gives recognition that power over resources and decision-making is at present held by non-Indigenous people and that 'bicultural practice must occur at a structural as well as an individual level to achieve social justice for the Maori'.
The AASW Code however, does not refer to the need for Indigenous Australians to shape the overall policies that govern their lives in accordance with their own cultural traditions and practices. This is despite the well-documented claims by Indigenous people that by being free to determine their own destinies, their circumstances will improve Dennis , p. What does our critique of codified ethics in the Australian context mean for practice?
We interviewed a small group of social workers in Melbourne and Sydney - practitioners we identified as coming from a progressive or critical perspective, for their views. Criticisms from the practitioners of the AASW Code included that it was not adequate in addressing issues of gender, sexuality, ethnicity, race, disability, age and class; the Code was seen as based on middle class and western notions and Anglo-Celtic institutions; and the Code had limited reflection of other world views and diversity of practice.
Most practitioners did not want the Code abandoned but recast in some way to address the concerns. This was similar to what academics and students told us in the course of our inquiry. Comments from practitioners included:. For Bauman , although the postmodern perspective offers more wisdom, the postmodern setting makes acting on that wisdom more difficult. Yet we argue that as social workers we need to work to find pathways to act on that wisdom and to apply the lessons of the postmodern paradigm to practice.
Social work is not advanced by a postmodern approach which merely condemns everything and proposes nothing Fawcett and Featherstone , p. She discusses a case scenario as a hospital social worker, documenting how modernist theories of social work did not allow her to deal adequately with the scope of responses she faced when dealing with a mother who murdered her child.
She found that calling on the modernist theoretical perspectives did not deal with the contradictions facing her in trying to provide explanations for the inconsistencies and concerns she experienced when dealing with complex and extraordinary events. There have been few such analyses of practice, and we call on social work practitioners to take Riley's lead in unravelling the limitations of traditional theoretical explanations in practice.
The challenge remains as to what might exist if social work codes of ethics were based on postmodernist concepts of celebrating and accepting diversity, difference and multiplicity. Although many practising social workers would deny working on 'universalist' assumptions and would hail the acknowledgment of difference as paramount to their practice methods, constraints under which such workers operate do not reflect this.
These constraints are more pronounced under the current economics-driven new managerialist agendas which confront the social work profession and which propose 'global' solutions to complex issues. Flax , p. If we accept the impossibility of now finding 'one voice' in which to represent difference and if we embrace a politics of difference Yeatman , then it may be possible to have a Code which reflects diversity. We need to return to those moral considerations and ideological positions to which Rhodes alluded.
In joining with the Aboriginal position we need to be clear about the ideological stance we are embracing. In particular, we need to take care that we are not coopted by the prevailing discourse with its focus on individual rights and responsibilities.
This necessitates clearly articulating what is meant by the conception of social good. For example Aboriginal claims to land for example should not be expressed merely in terms of access to resources and income, but also about a means to recover and maintain aspects of culture Patton Another challenge for the profession and its Code is to more actively respond to the needs of the diverse constituents of the profession by directly confronting policy and practice concerns.
One of the practitioners we interviewed commented that social workers don't see themselves sufficiently as change agents and this needs incorporating in the Code. Yet as de Maria notes, the Code does not encourage social activism Although the social work profession has joined with others in advocating for a reconciliation process between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples, there has been little evidence of more direct advocacy.
It is still individualistic in approach although to its credit it does make statements about distributive justice, human rights and recognition and respect for racial and cultural diversity, as well as the need for social workers to act to change social structures that preserve inequalities and justice.
It does incorporate some statements about Indigenous Australians but these are minimal. Although the Australian Code meets its international obligations by adhering to the principles established by the International Federation of Social Workers IFSW , this is not sufficient in tackling the complexities inherent in a pluralistic society. The future of social work codes in the light of the postmodern project is uncertain and fraught.
This remains unfinished business for the profession. Briskman, L. Dennis, J. De Maria, W. Dodson, M. D'Souza, N. Fawcett, B. Flax, J. Gaha, J. Howe, D. Leonard, P. Noble, C. Patton, P. Wilson and A. Yeatman, Allen and Unwin, Sydney. Williams, F. Parton, Routledge, London.
Critical Commentary: Social Work Ethics
Questioning the relevance of social work codes of ethics strikes at the heart of professionalism and professional control. Codes of ethics have been reified and upheld as one of the defining aspects of the social work profession Banks In recent years however, there have been increasing critiques of codes and their purpose in social work education and practice. This paper presents research which I have undertaken with Carolyn Noble from the University of Western Sydney for more than five years. The project emerged as we questioned the role of social work ethics as an arbiter with students who were floundering during the fieldwork practicum.
Sarah Banks. Practical Social Work Series. Flyer Sample chapter. Recommend to library. Paperback -
Code of Ethics
This paper examines the ethical implications of recent changes in social work, particularly in relation to the conception of social workers as professionals guided by a code of ethics. These changes include the fragmentation of the occupation, the increasing proceduralization of the work and the growing focus on consumer rights and user participation. Some people have argued that codes of ethics are becoming increasingly irrelevant in this climate, in that they assume a unified occupational group and are based upon professionals' definition of values without consultation with service users.
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Однако в том, что команда на отпирание действительно вводилась, не было никаких сомнений. Сьюзан в изумлении смотрела на монитор. Хейл влез в ее компьютер, когда она выходила. Именно он и подал ручную команду на отзыв Следопыта. Вопрос насколько. уступил место другому - с какой целью?.