Nigerian Foreign Policy And Economic Development Since Independence Pdf
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Nigerian Foreign Policy
I would also like to thank Ministry of External Affairs for deputing me to deliver the Talk under its prestigious Distinguished Lecture Series Programme. And finally I will touch upon the foreign policy Priorities and Challenges ahead of us. Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: Definition: I do not wish to burden you with the complicated definitions of Foreign Policy as offered by eminent scholars and prominent political scientists. As a practitioner, I look at Foreign Policy as a framework within which the Government of a given country conducts its relations with the outside world in different formats i. Broadly, Diplomacy can be political, economic or cultural, and ideally should work in tandem. As a rule the diplomacy is pursued through established diplomatic channels and mechanisms.
GDP and Economic Policy
Almost immediately upon gaining independence, India experienced a major threat to national unity and stability. The country prepared to divide along the borders of two of its rare overlapping cleavages to create a separate Pakistani nation with a Muslim majority one in the west corresponding to the borders of presentday Pakistan and one in the east corresponding to present-day Bangladesh. Indeed, the cleavages that remain are essentially cross-cutting with the exception of Kashmir , rendering a relatively stable contemporary Indian nation. Similarly, as a direct result of the same Hindu-Muslim riots that accompanied independence and generated "fears of destabilizing secessionist movements," Indian leaders felt compelled to give precedence to "the preservation of national unity" over states' rights. This fact is evidenced by the resultant Indian constitution that was "explicit in asserting the unity and primacy of the central government". For example, rather than continue to press for autonomy, the party that initially called for an autonomous state of "Dravidstan" in southern India decided instead to focus on capturing a block of seats in the national Parliament to achieve its aims. In other words, party members chose to act from within and through India's federalist system.
Request PDF | Nigerian foreign policy and economic development, – | Since independence, the guiding principle of Nigeria's foreign.
U.S. Relations With Nigeria
African Economic Development and This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.
Tanzania has undergone impressive political and economic developments and improvements in social welfare in recent years. However, the country continues to face considerable development challenges, not least in essential areas such as economic distribution, population growth, corruption and a stronger division between party and state. At the same time, new opportunities are arising which have the potential to become decisive for the necessary changes and reforms.
Bureau of African Affairs. From to , Nigeria experienced a series of military coups, excluding the short-lived second republic between and The month long civil war, which ended in January , resulted in million casualties.
Since independence, Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesian foreign policy under the "New Order" government of President Suharto moved away from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American posturing that characterised the latter part of the Sukarno era. Following Suharto's ouster in , Indonesia's government has preserved the broad outlines of Suharto's independent, moderate foreign policy.
Nigerian Foreign Policy
Economists who want to compare the living standards of one country to another or the wealth of one country over time often use gross domestic product GDP. Designed to measure the value of a country's production of goods and services, the metric has for decades provided a critical framework to guide policy decisions that affect people's living standards. But as issues such as the environment and wealth inequality gain political prominence, some economists argue GDP fails to account for important factors of societal wellbeing that are not directly tied to economic production, such as air and water quality, health, education, and leisure. According to this view, measuring only the goods and services produced by a country also does not reflect an economy's productivity, or how much society gains from each input of capital and labor. Others say there is no broader social measurement tool for policymakers to gauge improvements in living standards.
Nigeria is an important actor on the African and global stage. Its foreign practitioners and analysts often define Nigerian interests as operating within four concentric circles. The degree to which Nigeria may influence the four circles is a matter of debate—the fact that it does is not. It is an active participant in the United Nations and in global international affairs. Nigerian leaders often state their ambitions to play a larger role on the international scene.
Objectives and Principles of Nigeria's Foreign Policy since Independence economic development came the way of Nigeria, although it is arguable whether the.