Systems Engineering And Analysis Blanchard And Fabrycky Pdf Chapter 3
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- Systems Engineering And Analysis Solution Manual | Chegg.com
- Capability Updates, Upgrades, and Modernization
- System Engineering Management | Benjamin S. Blanchard
In other words, there must be a top—down and bottom—up traceability. Systems Engineering and Analysis, 5th Edition. Benjamin S.
Systems Engineering And Analysis Solution Manual | Chegg.com
The logistic support of a product or service reaches a point in its life where system modernization is required to resolve supportability problems and to reduce operational costs. Systems can be modernized in the field or returned to a depot or factory for modification. Design for system modernization and upgrade is an important part of the system engineering process and should be considered as part of the early requirements and design activities. Engineering change proposals Engineering change proposals ECPs are used to initiate updates and modifications to the original system.
Product and service upgrades can include new technology insertion, removing old equipment, or adding new equipment. Form, fit, function, and interface Form, fit, function, and interface F3I is an important principle for upgrades where backward compatibility is a requirement. Product and service modernization involves the same systems engineering SE processes and principles that are employed during the upfront design, development, integration, and testing. The primary differences between product and service modernization are the various constraints imposed by the existing system architecture, design, and components.
Modernizing a legacy system legacy system requires a detailed understanding of the product or service prior to making any changes. The constraints and the existence of design and test artifacts make it necessary for the systems engineers performing modernization to tailor the traditional development processes to fit the situation.
This guidance document applies to any system for which multiple systems are produced. These systems may be buildings, transmission networks, aircraft, automobiles or military vehicles, trains, naval vessels, and mass transit systems. Government and military products provide a comprehensive body of knowledge for system modernization and updates.
Key references have been developed by the defense industry and can be particular to their needs. Key factors and questions that must be considered by the systems engineer when making modifications and upgrades to a product or service include:.
Key processes and procedures that should be considered during product and service modernization include:. Product modernization involves understanding and managing a list of product deficiencies, prioritizing change requests, and handling customer issues associated with product usage.
Product modernization uses the engineering change management principle of change control boards to review and implement product changes and improvements. The U. Product modernization and upgrades require the use of system documentation. A key part of the product change process is to change the supporting system documentation functions, interfaces, modes, performance requirements, and limitations.
Both INCOSE and Blanchard and Fabrycky stress the importance of understanding the intended usage of the product or service documented in the form of a concept of operations.
Seacord, Plakosh, and Lewis's Modernizing Legacy Systems explains the importance of documenting the existing architecture of a system, including documenting the software architecture prior to making any changes. Chapter 5 of Seacord, Plakosh, and Lewis provides a framework for understanding and documenting a legacy system The authors point out that the product or service software will undergo a transformation during modernization and upgrades. Chapter 5 introduces a horseshoe model that includes functional transformation, code transformation, and architecture transformation Seacord, Plakosh, and Lewis During system verification and validation after product change , it is important to perform regression testing on the portions of the system that were not modified to confirm that upgrades did not impact the existing functions and behaviors of the system.
The degree and amount of regression testing depends on the type of change made to the system and whether the upgrade includes any changes to those functions or interfaces involved with system safety.
INCOSE recommends the use of a requirements verification traceability matrix to assist the systems engineer during regression testing. It is important to consider changes to the system support environment. Change may require modification or additions to the system test equipment and other support elements such as packaging and transportation.
Some commercial products contain components and subsystems where modernization activities cannot be performed. An example of these types of commercial systems can be seen by looking at consumer electronics, such as radios and computer components.
The purchase price of these commercial systems is low enough that upgrades are not economical and are considered cost prohibitive. Service system modernization may require regulatory changes to allow the use of new technologies and new materials. Service system modernization requires backward compatibility to previous provided service capability during the period of change.
Service system modernization also generally spans large geographical areas, requiring a phase-based change and implementation strategy. Transportation systems, such as highways, provide service to many different types of consumers and span large geographical areas.
Modernization of transportation systems often requires reverse engineering prior to making changes to understand how traffic monitoring devices such as metering, cameras, and toll tags interface with the rest of the system. In addition, this reference points out the need to maintain system integrity and defines integrity to include the accurate documentation of the system's functional, performance, and physical requirements in the form of requirements, design, and support specifications.
Enterprise system modernization must consider the location of the modification and the conditions under which the work will be performed. The largest challenge is implementing the changes while the system remains operational. In these cases, disruption of ongoing operations is a serious risk. For some systems, the transition between the old and new configuration is particularly important and must be carefully planned. Enterprise system modernization may require coordination of changes across international boundaries.
Enterprise modifications normally occur at a lower level of the system hierarchy. Change in requirements at the system level would normally constitute a new system or a new model of a system. In cases where a component is added or changed, this change will constitute a change to the architecture. As an example, the global positioning system GPS is an enterprise system implemented by the United States military but used by both commercial and government consumers worldwide.
Modernization may involve changes to only a certain segment of the enterprise, such as the ground user segment to reduce size, weight, and power. Modernization may only occur in certain geographical areas of operation. For example, the air transportation system consists of multiple countries and governing bodies dispersed over the entire world.
Changes can occur locally or can require coordination and integration world-wide. Figure 1 below illustrates how the standard Vee model Vee model would be applied to a system modification. This Vee model is for the entire system; the key point is that if a modification is being initiated at a lower level of the system hierarchy, the Vee model must be entered at that level as shown in the figure.
The figure shows three entry points to the Vee model. A change to the system that does not change the system capabilities but does change the requirements and design of a subsystem that may be introduced into the process at point B on the Vee model see Figure 1. Changes of this type could provide a new subsystem, such as a computer system, that meets the system-level requirements but has differences from the original, which necessitates modifications to the lower-level requirements and design, such as changing disk memory to solid state memory.
The process for implementing changes starting at this point has been described by Nguyen There are many cases where the change to a system needs to be introduced at the lowest levels of the architectural hierarchy; here, the entry point to the process is at point C on the Vee model. These cases are typically related to obsolete parts caused by changes in technology or due to reliability issues with subsystems and parts chosen for the original design. A change at this level should be F3I compatible so that none of the higher-level requirements are affected.
The systems engineer must ensure there is no impact at the higher levels; when this does occur, it must be immediately identified and worked out with the customer and the other stakeholders. His life extension or modernization process model includes reverse engineering to obtain the system definition necessary for the modernization process.
Consideration of the total lifecycle of the system will result in the capture of all of the records necessary for later upgrade; however, for many reasons, the systems engineer will find that the necessary information has not been captured or maintained. Often these modifications occur concurrently.
This situation requires special attention and there are two methods for managing it. This means that a group of systems are in the process of being modified simultaneously and will be deployed together as a group at a specific time.
This method is meant to ensure that at the end state, all the modifications have been coordinated and integrated so there are no conflicts and no non-compliance issues with the system-level requirements. The second method is called continuous integration and is meant to occur concurrently with the block method.
Information management systems provide an example of a commercial system where multiple changes can occur concurrently. The information management system hardware and network modernization will cause the system software to undergo changes. Software release management is used to coordinate the proper timing for the distribution of system software changes to end-users Michigan Department of Information Technology, Currently, a prominent consideration is the use of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components.
The application of COTS subsystems, components, and technologies to system life management provides a combination of advantages and risks. The first advantage is the inherent technological advancements that come with COTS components. COTS components continue to evolve toward a higher degree of functional integration. They provide increased functionality, while shrinking in physical size. The other advantage to using COTS components is that they typically have a lower cost.
The risks associated with using COTS during system life management involve component obsolescence and changes to system interfaces. Commercial market forces drive some components to obsolescence within two years or less.
Application of COTS requires careful consideration to form factor and interface physical and electrical. Blanchard, B. Systems Engineering and Analysis , 5th ed. Bourque, P. Fairley eds. Nguyen, L. Accessed on August 30, Seacord, R. Plakosh, and G. Braunstein, A. Casetta, E. Transportation Systems Engineering: Theory and methods.
Elliot, T. Chen, and R. Finlayson, B. Systems Engineering of Deployed Systems. Obsolescence Management - Application Guide , ed 1. Institute of Engineers Singapore.
Capability Updates, Upgrades, and Modernization
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System Engineering Management | Benjamin S. Blanchard
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