compare and contrast theory x and theory y pdf

Compare And Contrast Theory X And Theory Y Pdf

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In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second.

Theory X And Theory Y. Theory X managers take a 'carrot and stick' approach when motivating subordinates. They assume that workers are inherently resistant to labor and will do all they can to avoid doing work so as to gain the maximum amount of profit for the least amount of effort. They may assume responsibility, but will do so for personal profit alone.

Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker.

Differences Between Theory X and Theory Y

Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas. But there are times when management is less about leadership and more about the staunch enforcement of rules and micromanagement of production. These differing management styles have been coined in the academic management community as Theory X and Theory Y. Because employees have historically been given a flat exchange of time and energy for income, workplace incentives have often been rooted in a fear of loss of employment, in earning potential from extra productivity, or in acquiescing to managerial dominance for promotion.

Difference Between Theory X and Theory Y

Aithal, Sreeramana, Most related items These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa

Professor Douglas McGregor highlighted that there is a significant relationship between motivation and leadership among people. He summarized the findings of the Hawthorn experiment by introducing both theory X and theory Y. It is important to note that both theory X and theory Y are based on the argument that there are specific approaches to managing people based on their traits. Theory X is formulated on the traditional approach to human behavior, which states that severe form of leadership must be used to persuade workers towards achieving the organizational goals. Some of the assumptions adopted in this theory include;.

Motivation implies the act of stimulating or inspiring subordinates to pursue the desired course of action. It is something that makes people act or behave in a particular manner. Based on the premises concerning human behaviour, Prof.

Difference Between Theory X and Theory Y

In combination, both approaches are referred to as Theory XY. Theory XY remains central to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture and is developed based on the basis that there are fundamental approaches to managing people based on their characteristics.

Theory X & Theory Y

The paper used hierarchical linear modeling to test the hypotheses. The findings of the present study suggest that the Theory X and Y managerial assumptions are a worthwhile basis from which to examine several important organizational and individual outcomes. The sample consisted of military personnel and were predominantly male. This may limit the generalizability of the findings. Although McGregor's Theory X and Y have contributed to management and leadership thinking and practice for many years; empirical studies examining the Theory X and Y managerial assumptions in a work environment are very scarce. By examining the effect of leader's Theory X and Y managerial assumptions on follower's attitudes and behaviors, the study provides important insights for leadership literature. The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Ministry of National Defense or the Turkish Armed Forces.

Our management style is firmly influenced by our beliefs and assumptions about what encourages members of our team like: If we believe that our team members dislike work, then we tend towards an authoritarian style of management. However, if we assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, we tend to adopt a more participative style. This theory believes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. According to this theory, management must firmly intervene to get things done.


Theory X assumes that an employee dislikes work, while theory Y presupposes that work is natural for employees. On the other hand, theory Y infers that people accept and seek responsibility. The leadership style adopted by the management, in the case of theory X is autocratic.


Theory X and Theory Y

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