Human Male Reproductive System Parts And Functions Pdf
File Name: human male reproductive system parts and functions .zip
Human reproductive system , organ system by which humans reproduce and bear live offspring.
The male reproductive system includes external penis, scrotum, epididymus, and testes and internal accessory organs. These external structures are the penis, scrotum, epididymis, and testes. Male Reproductive System : Lateral view of male reproductive system with organs labeled.
Unique for its role in human reproduction, a gamete is a specialized sex cell carrying 23 chromosomes—one half the number in body cells. At fertilization, the chromosomes in one male gamete, called a sperm or spermatozoon , combine with the chromosomes in one female gamete, called an oocyte. The paired testes are a crucial component in this process, as they produce both sperm and androgens, the hormones that support male reproductive physiology. In humans, the most important male androgen is testosterone.
Male Reproductive System
The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis. These organs work together to produce sperm, the male gamete, and the other components of semen. These reproductive organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into the vagina where it can fertilize egg cells to produce offspring. The scrotum is a sac-like organ made of skin and muscles that houses the testes.
It is located inferior to the penis in the pubic region. The scrotum is made up of 2 side-by-side pouches with a testis located in each pouch.
The smooth muscles that make up the scrotum allow it to regulate the distance between the testes and the rest of the body. The 2 testes , also known as testicles, are the male gonads responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. The testes are ellipsoid glandular organs around 1. Each testis is found inside its own pouch on one side of the scrotum and is connected to the abdomen by a spermatic cord and cremaster muscle.
The cremaster muscles contract and relax along with the scrotum to regulate the temperature of the testes. The inside of the testes is divided into small compartments known as lobules.
Each lobule contains a section of seminiferous tubule lined with epithelial cells. These epithelial cells contain many stem cells that divide and form sperm cells through the process of spermatogenesis. The epididymis is a sperm storage area that wraps around the superior and posterior edge of the testes.
The epididymis is made up of several feet of long, thin tubules that are tightly coiled into a small mass. Sperm produced in the testes moves into the epididymis to mature before being passed on through the male reproductive organs. The length of the epididymis delays the release of the sperm and allows them time to mature. Within the scrotum, a pair of spermatic cords connects the testes to the abdominal cavity. The spermatic cords contain the ductus deferens along with nerves, veins, arteries, and lymphatic vessels that support the function of the testes.
The ductus deferens , also known as the vas deferens, is a muscular tube that carries sperm superiorly from the epididymis into the abdominal cavity to the ejaculatory duct. The ductus deferens is wider in diameter than the epididymis and uses its internal space to store mature sperm.
The smooth muscles of the walls of the ductus deferens are used to move sperm towards the ejaculatory duct through peristalsis. The seminal vesicles are a pair of lumpy exocrine glands that store and produce some of the liquid portion of semen. The seminal vesicles are about 2 inches in length and located posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum. The liquid produced by the seminal vesicles contains proteins and mucus and has an alkaline pH to help sperm survive in the acidic environment of the vagina.
The liquid also contains fructose to feed sperm cells so that they survive long enough to fertilize the oocyte. The ductus deferens passes through the prostate and joins with the urethra at a structure known as the ejaculatory duct.
The ejaculatory duct contains the ducts from the seminal vesicles as well. During ejaculation, the ejaculatory duct opens and expels sperm and the secretions from the seminal vesicles into the urethra.
Semen passes from the ejaculatory duct to the exterior of the body via the urethra, an 8 to 10 inch long muscular tube. The urethra passes through the prostate and ends at the external urethral orifice located at the tip of the penis. Urine exiting the body from the urinary bladder also passes through the urethra.
The prostate is a walnut-sized exocrine gland that borders the inferior end of the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra. The prostate produces a large portion of the fluid that makes up semen. This fluid is milky white in color and contains enzymes, proteins, and other chemicals to support and protect sperm during ejaculation. The prostate also contains smooth muscle tissue that can constrict to prevent the flow of urine or semen.
Unfortunately the prostate is also particularly susceptible to cancer. This fluid enters the urethra during sexual arousal prior to ejaculation to prepare the urethra for the flow of semen. The penis is the male external sexual organ located superior to the scrotum and inferior to the umbilicus. The penis is roughly cylindrical in shape and contains the urethra and the external opening of the urethra. Large pockets of erectile tissue in the penis allow it to fill with blood and become erect.
The erection of the penis causes it to increase in size and become turgid. The function of the penis is to deliver semen into the vagina during sexual intercourse. In addition to its reproductive function, the penis also allows for the excretion of urine through the urethra to the exterior of the body.
Read our Hims ED review for more information. Semen is the fluid produced by males for sexual reproduction and is ejaculated out of the body during sexual intercourse. Semen contains sperm, the male reproductive gametes, along with a number of chemicals suspended in a liquid medium.
The chemical composition of semen gives it a thick, sticky consistency and a slightly alkaline pH. These traits help semen to support reproduction by helping sperm to remain within the vagina after intercourse and to neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina.
In healthy adult males, semen contains around million sperm cells per milliliter. These sperm cells fertilize oocytes inside the female fallopian tubes. Spermatogenesis is the process of producing sperm and takes place in the testes and epididymis of adult males. Prior to puberty, there is no spermatogenesis due to the lack of hormonal triggers. At puberty, spermatogenesis begins when luteinizing hormone LH and follicle stimulating hormone FSH are produced.
LH triggers the production of testosterone by the testes while FSH triggers the maturation of germ cells. Testosterone stimulates stem cells in the testes known as spermatogonium to undergo the process of developing into spermatocytes.
Each diploid spermatocyte goes through the process of meiosis I and splits into 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes. The secondary spermatocytes go through meiosis II to form 4 haploid spermatid cells. The spermatid cells then go through a process known as spermiogenesis where they grow a flagellum and develop the structures of the sperm head. After spermiogenesis, the cell is finally a sperm cell, or spermatozoa.
The spermatozoa are released into the epididymis where they complete their maturation and become able to move on their own. Fertilization is the process by which a sperm combines with an oocyte, or egg cell, to produce a fertilized zygote.
The sperm released during ejaculation must first swim through the vagina and uterus and into the fallopian tubes where they may find an oocyte.
After encountering the oocyte, sperm next have to penetrate the outer corona radiata and zona pellucida layers of the oocyte. Sperm contain enzymes in the acrosome region of the head that allow them to penetrate these layers. After penetrating the interior of the oocyte, the nuclei of these haploid cells fuse to form a diploid cell known as a zygote. The zygote cell begins cell division to form an embryo.
By: Tim Taylor. Last Updated: Jul 29, All Rights Reserved. Innerbody Research does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. You must consult your own medical professional.
Structure of the Male Reproductive System
The male reproductive system includes the penis, scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles. The penis and the urethra are part of the urinary and reproductive systems. The scrotum, testes testicles , epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate comprise the rest of the reproductive system. The penis consists of the root which is attached to the lower abdominal structures and pelvic bones , the visible part of the shaft, and the glans penis the cone-shaped end. The opening of the urethra the channel that transports semen and urine is located at the tip of the glans penis. The base of the glans penis is called the corona.
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The reproductive system is a collection of internal and external organs — in both males and females — that work together for the purpose of procreating, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Due to its vital role in the survival of the species, many scientists argue that the reproductive system is among the most important systems in the entire body. The male reproductive system consists of two major parts: the testes, where sperm are produced, and the penis, according to Merck Manuals. The penis and urethra belong to both the urinary and reproductive systems in males. The testes are carried in an external pouch known as the scrotum, where they normally remain slightly cooler than body temperature to facilitate sperm production.
These organs do the following jobs within your body:. The male reproductive system is made up of internal inside your body and external outside your body parts.
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