Principles And Strategies Of Teaching In Health Education Pdf
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- PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHING 1
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- Ten Principles of Effective Teaching
The Environmental Psychology of Teaching and Learning. This enchanting description of a classroom at the fictitious Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry captures three fundamental ideas from the environmental psychology of teaching and learning. Gemini in 7th house spouse.
PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHING 1
Search Titles Subjects Organizations. Handout 19A: Health education strategies Handout 19B: Examples of health education strategies Handout 19C: Suggestions for selecting health education strategies. Within health education, there are three main categories of strategies: 1 Community Organization, 2 Training, and 3 Communication.
Each of these categories include a number of specific techniques which may be selected and combined to accomplish a given objective. During this short session, participants work in small groups to examine each of the three categories of health strategies and practice selecting and combining appropriate strategies and techniques to accomplish sample objectives. In treating the strategy of community organization, Trainees will be able to draw on what they've learned during Session 14 about organizing and involving community members in PHC projects.
The other two strategies will be examined in depth during the remainder of this Module and Module 7, Training of Trainers. This will help you to lead the discussion in Step 2 and enable you to easily give additional examples if needed. Answer any questions the group may have regarding the three types of strategies and help them understand how the selection of strategies fits into the overall health education process. Have participants practice selecting strategies for one of the health problems they worked with during Sessions 17 and To do this, divide them into three small groups and assign one of the three categories to each group organizational, training, communication.
Ask the groups to take no more than 15 minutes to describe what a person taking their assigned strategy would do for health education in their problem situation. Trainer Note To help participants understand the concept of organizational strategy, refer them back to Session 14 Community Involvement.
In the context of the CCCD Manual, community "organization", "participation", and "involvement" are all synonymous terms. Also, explain to the group that they will be learning and using a number of techniques for communication and training during the remainder of the Module and during the Training of Trainers Modules. Step 2 30 min Comparing The Three Strategies Ask each group to identify their category Organization, Training, Communication and present the strategy and specific techniques they would apply to the problem situation.
Lead a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of each strategy and the associated techniques. Discuss ways that they could combine the three types of strategies for a more effective response to the problem. Trainer Note The following points should come out of the discussion: - the importance of applying a good knowledge of values and practices of the people for whom the health education is intended.
To help participants understand the link between health education objectives and strategies, ask them to refer back to some of the sample objectives presented during Session Explain that a key to selecting appropriate strategies is recognizing what kind of change is to occur if the objective is accomplished.
Is the objective primarily concerned with a change in knowledge, attitude, skill, social reinforcement, or some other area affecting behavior? When the health educator has identified the type of change called for in the objective, then he or she can match the objective with the strategy or combination of strategies most likely to facilitate the change.
Ask participants to pair up with the same person they worked with during Sessions 17 and Have them develop a first draft of a health education strategy that addresses one of their problems and health education objectives. Tell them to use any combination of the three categories and techniques that seems appropriate. When they have completed the task, ask them to post their drafts. Allow time for participants to look at and comment on each other's strategies.
Add your own comments as well. Explain that they will be revising these draft strategies in later sessions. Trainer Note Take time to review and comment on each strategy after the session. If some participants appear to have difficulty in understanding and planning health education strategies, ask participants with some background in health education to provide peer tutoring.
Handout 19B: Examples of health education strategies Application of Health Education to Domestic Water Supply and Sanitation Projects The goal of health education in water supply and sanitation projects is to enable individuals and communities to realize the health benefits of these projects, i.
However, in many cases the people often do not participate in the selection of these technologies. Further, the nature of the health problems resulting from poor water and sanitation practices is such that isolated individual behavioral change does not necessarily result in desired health outcomes.
Collective behavioral change is required in order to achieve measurable impact on both individual and community health status. The goal, however, is to work in such a way that continuous maintenance is assured and thus appropriate use is facilitated. The basic strategy is to establish new or reinforce existing social structures e. In this context, organizational methods--in the form of community organization , also referred to as community participation --emerge as potentially the most effective strategy for health education programs in water and sanitation projects.
The application of organizational methods of health education to domestic water supply and sanitation projects usually takes many different forms, depending on the existing organizational dynamics within a community and the desired behavioral changes. The feasibility and desirability of these methods in a large urban setting, for example, vary considerably.
A community organization approach to health education may involve efforts to assemble a group of people to discuss ways to eliminate their annual shortage of water during the dry season and how they might pursue them. It can also mean working with a locally elected water authority responsible for the physical and financial maintenance of a newly installed standpipe system.
It includes efforts to coordinate water and sanitation activities with all relevant government and private agencies. Small group discussions on latrine maintenance involving neighborhood mothers; installation of a well at a local school, getting the village elders to encourage penning of animals; and organization of community clean-up campaigns are all activities of a community organization approach.
Although the results of a community organization approach might vary from community to community in terms of decisions made, reality dictates that choices regarding all aspects of water supply and sanitation systems be made within certain parameters of standardization. The application of training methods as a health education strategy is also critically important to water and sanitation projects.
The audience for training can be either the persons at risk of health problems e. Training of trainers TOT is also included in the latter category. Training is a strategy of health education in that it enables individuals and groups to acquire new knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs and skills which in turn facilitate behavior change.
Training in group settings promotes and reinforces behavior change of individuals within the group. Communications , or the dissemination of information, is an important, legitimate activity of water and sanitation education programs. Information enables people to make informed choices related to water and sanitation practices, but it does not necessarily motivate them to act.
The first criterion calls for not only evidence of need in terms of high prevalence of water and sanitation-related disease, but also evidence of demand for water and sanitation facilities as demonstrated by the willingness of consumers to support recurrent costs of projects as well as to cover at least portions of investment costs.
If consumers are unable to make such commitments but "the absence of basic water and sanitation systems poses a public health hazard for the community at large, the government must demonstrate a commitment to shoulder a substantial portion of the investment costs, as well as those recurrent costs which the community cannot cover in the short run".
Working with consumers and government officials to develop that "willingness" and "commitment", becomes a task of health education. The objective is to develop behavior conducive to realizing health benefits--that is, behavior in support of functioning water supply and sanitation facilities. The second criterion states that the "local and national institutions responsible for national domestic water supply and sanitation policy must have the responsibility, personnel and budgetary resources to ensure the construction, expansion and continued operations and maintenance of the improved water and sanitation systems..
The ability of institutions to carry out these tasks naturally has a direct impact on the realization of the potential health benefits of water supply and sanitation projects.
If systems deteriorate, break down and become nonfunctional, then health benefits will likely not accrue to the population served. Thus, system maintenance, too, is an area of concern to health education in that appropriate training and institutional development will help create "an environment supportive of change".
If people are to properly use facilities, the facilities must function properly. In addition to the investment criteria, the policy paper also outlines the factors that will guide the design of AID-supported domestic water and sanitation projects. Many of these factors have education dimensions and thus would be in the preview of health education. For example, instruction of "users in proper water use and hygiene" must be provided for in project design.
Handout 19C: Suggestions for selecting health education strategies Selecting the appropriate strategy for a health education program will depend on a situational diagnosis and a subsequent determination of methods which are most likely to directly or indirectly influence behavioral change.
Green suggests that four basic principles should guide the selection and coordination of the educational component of any program: 1. Health education seldom has an immediate, direct impact on behavior. It influences behavior primarily through changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, perceptions, and social supports relatives and significant others and through changes in professional behavior towards participants, including referrals, communication and reinforcement.
These are the intervening variables through which health education should be expected to influence health behavior, and which therefore should be considered in selecting and coordinating educational experiences. No single educational input by itself should be expected to have significant lasting impact on health behavior unless it is supported by other educational inputs.
Health education strategies must be cumulative and mutually supportive of the several factors facilitating a given behavior. The best combination of educational methods, media and messages for some people, is not necessarily the best combination for others, or for the same people in other situations. Therefore, educational methods within a given program should vary according to audience characteristics and circumstances. Health education cannot claim and should not be expected to accomplish more than behavior change, unless the medical or epidemiological evidence linking health or disease outcomes directly to the behavior is conclusive.
The effectiveness of health education methods should be judged on the basis of behavior.
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Health education is one strategy for implementing health promotion and disease prevention programs. Health education provides learning experiences on health topics. Health education strategies are tailored for their target population. Health education activities should enhance the overall goal of the health promotion and disease prevention program. Materials developed for health education programs must be culturally appropriate and tailored to the target populations to ensure cultural competence. In rural communities, this means addressing cultural and linguistic differences, and addressing potential barriers to health promotion and disease prevention in rural areas. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health Document Presents a framework for helping health professionals to understand and address the social determinants of health.
Health education. 2. Teaching. 3. Learning. [DNLM: 1. Education, Nursing—methods. 2. Learning—Nurses'. Instruction. 3. Patient Education—methods. 4.
Ten Principles of Effective Teaching
Here health communicator uses the existing knowledge of the people as pegs on which to hang new knowledge. Site news. Planning For Health Education. Principles Of Health Education.
Project planning activity can begin based on the project charter document, project requirement document. Method: Introduce the topic by explaining that marketing is considered one of the most important tools for developing a business. Section 2. Define lesson and linstructional planning; 2.
Search Titles Subjects Organizations. Handout 19A: Health education strategies Handout 19B: Examples of health education strategies Handout 19C: Suggestions for selecting health education strategies. Within health education, there are three main categories of strategies: 1 Community Organization, 2 Training, and 3 Communication. Each of these categories include a number of specific techniques which may be selected and combined to accomplish a given objective. During this short session, participants work in small groups to examine each of the three categories of health strategies and practice selecting and combining appropriate strategies and techniques to accomplish sample objectives. In treating the strategy of community organization, Trainees will be able to draw on what they've learned during Session 14 about organizing and involving community members in PHC projects. The other two strategies will be examined in depth during the remainder of this Module and Module 7, Training of Trainers.
A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. The approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered.
The Journal publishes articles on basic or clinical research relating to nephrology, arterial hypertension, dialysis and kidney transplants. It is governed by the peer review system and all original papers are subject to internal assessment and external reviews. The journal accepts submissions of articles in English and in Spanish languages. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published.
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