bacterial gene regulation and transcriptional networks pdf

Bacterial Gene Regulation And Transcriptional Networks Pdf

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This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License. Understanding evolution requires the elucidation of the mechanisms through which phenotypic variation is generated and its subsequent consequences.

Transcription is an essential step in gene expression and its understanding has been one of the major interests in molecular and cellular biology. By precisely tuning gene expression, transcriptional regulation determines the molecular machinery for developmental plasticity, homeostasis and adaptation.

Transcription factors and evolution: An integral part of gene expression (Review)

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product that enables it to produce protein as the end product. Gene expression is summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology first formulated by Francis Crick in , [1] further developed in his article, [2] and expanded by the subsequent discoveries of reverse transcription [3] [4] [5] and RNA replication. The process of gene expression is used by all known life— eukaryotes including multicellular organisms , prokaryotes bacteria and archaea , and utilized by viruses —to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. In genetics , gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype , i. The genetic information stored in DNA represents the genotype, whereas the phenotype results from the "interpretation" of that information. Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's structure and development, or that act as enzymes catalyzing specific metabolic pathways.

A gene or genetic regulatory network GRN is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins which, in turn, determine the function of the cell. GRN also play a central role in morphogenesis , the creation of body structures, which in turn is central to evolutionary developmental biology evo-devo. The interaction can be direct or indirect through transcribed RNA or translated protein. In general, each mRNA molecule goes on to make a specific protein or set of proteins. In some cases this protein will be structural , and will accumulate at the cell membrane or within the cell to give it particular structural properties. In other cases the protein will be an enzyme , i.

Gene regulation at the transcriptional level is central to the process by which organisms convert the constant sensing of environmental changes and intracellular fluxes of metabolites to homeostatic responses. In recent years a wealth of data from structural studies, sequence analysis and comparative genomics has led to a greater understanding of bacterial gene regulation and transcriptional networks. Along with the strategic guidance of M. Madan Babu Cambridge, UK authors from around the world have joined forces to review and discuss the latest research observations and current theories in this highly topical and important area of microbiology. The first few chapters describe the components required for transcriptional regulation, elucidate their complexity and discuss the genome-scale theories that currently prevail by investigating a large number of completely sequenced microbial genomes.

Transcriptional Networks that Regulate Hydrocarbon Biodegradation

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Faria is a Ph. He conducts part of his research at Argonne National Laboratory. He is an expert in bioinformatics and genome annotation. Fangfang Xia is an assistant computer scientist at Argonne National Laboratory. He is an expert in bioinformatics, phylogenetics and high-performance computing. His main research interests lie in the fields of bioinformatics, machine learning and evolutionary computation.


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Transcription factors and evolution: An integral part of gene expression (Review)

Biological networks are the representation of multiple interactions within a cell, a global view intended to help understand how relationships between molecules dictate cellular behavior. Recent advances in molecular and computational biology have made possible the study of intricate transcriptional regulatory networks that describe gene expression as a function of regulatory inputs specified by interactions between proteins and DNA. Here we review the properties of transcriptional regulatory networks and the rapidly evolving approaches that will enable the elucidation of their structure and dynamic behavior.

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